2017年5月13日 星期六

supplement, supplant,.ádjunct, more progress than usual—but still not enough

“My native gifts are not remarkable, but I have a certain force of character which has enabled me in a measure to supplement my deficiencies. I have common-sense. Most people cannot see anything, but I can see what is in the front of my nose with extreme clearness; the greatest writers can see through a brick wall. My vision is not so penetrating. For many years I have been described as a cynic; I told the truth. I wish no one to take me for other than I am, and on the other hand I see no need to accept others' pretences.”
--from "A Writer's Notebook"

Obama promises to be a more useful adjunct to his party’s campaign for a third presidential term than is usual for a sitting president

The euro crisis
Inching towards integrationThe latest European summit made more progress than usual—but still not enough

The new scanners will supplement the 40 already placed in 19 U.S. airports as officials balance airline security with privacy concerns.

MuscleMaster.com is conducting a nationwide voluntary recall of 17 dietary supplement products sold between June 1, 2009 and Nov. 17, 2009. ...

It supplements: it does not supplant.

The TES forums are where the teaching community goes to let off steam. Register and join the debate...
(The Times Educational Supplement (TES) is a weekly UK publication covering the world of primary, secondary and further education, as well as teaching job vacancies.)

 noun [C]
1 something which is added to something else in order to improve it or complete it; something extra:
The doctor said she should be taking vitamin supplements.
The money I get from teaching evening classes provides a supplement to my main income.
We paid a supplement (= an extra amount of money) so that we could have a cabin on board the ship.

2 a part of a magazine or newspaper, either produced separately or as part of the magazine or newspaper:
The newspaper publishes a sports supplement every Monday.

3 A supplement to a book is an additional part of it, either produced separately or included at the end of the book, which contains information that was not available when the book was first produced:
There is a supplement to the dictionary containing new words.

supplement verb [T]
to add something to something to make it larger or better:
He supplements (= adds to) his income by working in a bar in the evening.
Some vegetarians like to supplement their diets with iron tablets.

adjective (US ALSO supplemental)
a supplementary income



━━ n. 補足, 補遺, 付録 ((to)); 追加支払い金(額); 補足給付金(額); 【数】補角. 【哲】代補, 補足代行.
━━  vt. 補う, 追加する; 補遺[付録を]つける.
 sup・ple・men・talsup・ple・men・ta・ry ━━ a. 補充の ((to)); 【数】補角の.
supplemental compensation 【経営】(基本給(本給)以外に加算される)補助給与, 特別手当.
supplemental unemployment benefit [compensation] 【経営】補助的失業給付金 ((民間の失業保険から支払われる)).
 supplementary angles 【数】補角.
 supplementary benefit 【英史】補足給付.
 supplementary units 【物】補助単位.
 sup・ple・men・ta・tion ━━ n.

to replace:
In most offices, the typewriter has now been supplanted by the computer.
Small children can often feel supplanted (in their parents' affections) (= that their parents no longer like them as much) when a new brother or sister is born.


━━ vt. (不正手段・力などで)取って代る; 地位をだまし取る.


  • 発音記号[ǽdʒʌŋkt](ăj'ŭngkt') pronunciation
  • Something attached to another in a dependent or subordinate position. See synonyms at appendage.
  • A person associated with another in a subordinate or auxiliary capacity.
  • Grammar. A clause or phrase added to a sentence that, while not essential to the sentence's structure, amplifies its meaning, such as for several hours in We waited for several hours.
  • Logic. A nonessential attribute of a thing.
  1. Added or connected in a subordinate or auxiliary capacity: an adjunct clause.
  2. Attached to a faculty or staff in a temporary or auxiliary capacity: an adjunct professor of history.
[From Latin adiūnctus, past participle of adiungere, to join to. See adjoin.]
adjunction ad·junc'tion (ə-jŭngk'shən) n.
adjunctive ad·junc'tive adj.
1 (…の)付加物, 付属物, 添え物, 付録((to, of ...));助手, 協力者
an adjunct to ceremonial occasions
2 《文法》付加詞, 修飾語句;《論理学》添性, 付属性.
1 付属する, 付随する.
2 (正式の身分でなく)補助の
an adjunct instructor

ádjunct proféssor[ádjunct proféssor]

1 (一部の大学で)準教授(associate professor).
2 兼任教授, 非常勤教授. ▼大学外に本職をもつ.或稱為"客卿教授" 有的無酬.....
Someone who does not have a permanent position at the academic institution; this may be someone with a job outside the academic institution teaching courses in a specialized field; or it may refer to persons hired to teach courses on contractual basis (frequently renewable contracts); it is generally a part-time position with a teaching load below the minimum required to earn benefits (health care, life insurance, etc.), although the number of courses taught can vary from a single course to a full-time load (or even an overload).
An adjunct is generally not required to participate in the administrative responsibilities at the institution expected of other full-time professors, nor do they generally have research responsibilities. The pay for these positions is usually nominal, even though adjuncts typically hold a Ph.D., requiring most adjuncts to hold concurrent positions at several institutions or in industry. Due to the considerably lower salaries of adjunct professors, many universities in North America have reduced hiring of tenure-track faculty in favor of recruiting adjuncts on a contractual basis. Contingent faculty now make up more than half of all faculty positions in the United States.[2]
Adjuncts provide flexibility to the faculty, acting as additional teaching resources to be called up as necessary; however, their teaching load is variable: classes can be transferred from adjuncts to full-time professors, classes with low enrollment can be summarily canceled and the teaching schedule from one semester to the next can be unpredictable. Furthermore, if the university makes a good faith offer to an adjunct professor of teaching during the following semester depending on enrollment, the adjunct generally cannot file for unemployment during the break. In some cases, an adjunct may hold one of the standard ranks in another department, and be recognized with adjunct rank for making significant contributions to the department in question. Thus, e.g., one could be a "Associate Professor of Physics and Adjunct Professor of Chemistry."

  1. Something that completes another: complement. See agree/disagree, part/whole.
  2. A subordinate element added to another entity: accessory, adjunct, appendage, appurtenance, attachment. See increase/decrease.
    To supply what is lacking: complement, complete, fill in (or out), round (off or out). Seeagree/disagree, part/whole.