2017年7月31日 星期一

sisterly, fluke, cesspool, negativity, befit, befitting, fighter,




According to MIT physicist Jeremy England, the existence of life is no mystery or lucky break, but rather follows from general physical principles and “should be as unsurprising as rocks rolling downhill.”
Take chemistry, add energy, get life. The first tests of Jeremy England’s…
WIRED.COM



Cities can’t win. When they do well, people resent them as citadels of inequality; when they do badly, they are cesspools of hopelessness. So how can they evolve?

For a city to thrive, it has to change. But how?
NEWYORKER.COM



North Korea says President Barack Obama is “recklessly” spreading rumours of a Pyongyang-orchestrated cyber attack of Sony Pictures, as it warns of strikes against the White House, Pentagon and “the whole US mainland, that cesspool of terrorism”.

Pyongyang labels US ‘cesspool of terrorism’ and accuses Barack Obama of spreading rumours about cyberattack on Sony Pictures
THEGUARDIAN.COM


 As befits two disciplines, neither of which is clearly defined and both of which address themselves to the whole of human life and thought, anthropology and philosophy are more than a little suspicious of one another.


Fighters' Yoh enjoying spotlight with Taiwan at WBC
The Japan Times
Daikan Yoh was surrounded by a mob befitting a rock star. Most eyes had been trained on the Taiwanese outfielder during his team's practice session at Tokyo Dome on Friday, and finally they'd caught up to him. The Hokkaido Nippon Ham Fighters ...
Noted

Stronger, Faster, Nastier

By BEE-SHYUAN CHANG
Will the London Olympics one day be remembered as a cesspool of social media negativity?

These findings are no fluke; other studies have come to similar conclusions. But why would having a sister make you happier?
The usual answer — that girls and women are more likely than boys and men to talk about emotions — is somehow unsatisfying, especially to a researcher like me. Much of my work over the years has developed the premise that women’s styles of friendship and conversation aren’t inherently better than men’s, simply different.

sisterly talk

sisterly
Meaning #1: like or characteristic of or befitting a sister
Synonyms: sisterlike, sororal
Antonym: brotherly (meaning #1)

sororal
adj.
Of, relating to, or resembling a sister; sisterly.

[From Latin soror, sister.]

fluke3 (flūk) pronunciation
n.
  1. A stroke of good luck.
  2. A chance occurrence; an accident.
  3. Games. An accidentally good or successful stroke in billiards or pool.
[Origin unknown.]

befit

Pronunciation: /bɪˈfɪt/
Translate befit | into Italian



verb (befits, befitting, befitted)

[with object]
  • be appropriate for; suit:as befits a Quaker, he was a humane man

Spelling rule

If a verb ends with a single vowel plus a consonant, and the stress is at the end of the word (as in refer), double the last letter when adding -ing or -ed: (befits, befitting, befitted).

befitting 

音節
be • fit • ting
発音
bifítiŋ
[形]適した, ふさわしい, 適当な, 似合う
in a befitting manner
ふさわしい態度で.
be・fit・ting・ly
[副]

césspòol[céss・pòol]

  • ˈsɛspuːl/
    noun
    1. an underground container for the temporary storage of liquid waste and sewage.
      • a disgusting or corrupt place.
        "the town is not the cesspool you portrayed"
[名]
1 汚物[汚水]だめ.
2 不浄の場所
a cesspool of infamy
悪の巣. (またcéss・pìt)

  negativity

  • 発音記号[négətivəti]

[名][U]消極性, 陰性.

grisly, chapbook, disseminated, high-profile, castrati."phenomenological assumptions"



Not every classical composer was tried for witchcraft, but he was.

He murdered his wife and her lover. But it is for glorious music, not grisly crimes, that we should remember Gesualdo.
BBC.COM




A look inside the world of the castrati.

Young countertenors are the new superstars of the classical world. But the 20th Century phenomenon has a disturbing history. Clemency Burton-Hill takes a look.
BBC.COM




"Les Fleurs du Mal" was published on June 25th 1857. A collection of poetry dedicated to exploring eroticism and decadence, it was categorised by themes such as "wine", "death" and "revolt". It was deemed "an insult to public decency"; Baudelaire was fined and dissemination of the volume was prohibited until 1949

Japan's gossipy tabloids step in where other media fear to tread. What makes them so special? Thanks to exposures of high-profile names and grisly tales of child murderers, gangsters and sumo wrestling, Japan’s weeklies continue to thrive with over 2 million copies sold each week

Defeating the Taliban proved impossible; preventing them from winning is probably easier


The Taliban is gaining territory but its long-term prospects remain dim
ECON.ST

BBC Culture
Young countertenors are the new superstars of the classical world – but the phenomenon has a disturbing history.

That such an act of barbarism could be legitimated in the name of art beggars belief in our modern age.
BBC.COM|由 CLEMENCY BURTON-HILL 上傳

The terrifying stampede left a grisly aftermath: http://cnn.it/1Bk9Duy


Witnesses describe scene at New Year's stampede
36 people were killed and 47 others injured
CNN.COM|由 JETHRO MULLEN, CNN 上傳


The defective air bags, made by Japanese manufacturer Takata, can rupture and blast out metal shards, particularly in humid conditions, government officials have said. While the rate of reported incidents is low, linked to four deaths and more than 100 injuries so far, their grisly severity has spurred an urgent debate about the matter in Washington.

A Mexican Cartel's Swift and Grisly Climb
APATZINGAN, Mexico -- In farm towns across the hot, fertile state of Michoacan, famous for its mangos and marijuana, residents are used to seeing military patrols rumbling through their streets. But until late last month, they had never seen soldiers descending on City Hall.


Working paper: Phenomenological Assumptions and Knowledge Dissemination within Organizational Studies

http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6164.html
Download the PDF. Field-wide integration of knowledge generated by subfield specialists is critical for new discoveries and for a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of complex phenomena. In spite of the value of broadly disseminating knowledge within the social and physical sciences, scholarly discourse tends to be contained within subfields of research. UCLA professor Corinne Bendersky and HBS professor Kathleen L. McGinn introduce "phenomenological assumptions"—revealed beliefs about the fundamental qualities of the phenomenon under investigation and its relationship to the environment in which it occurs—as barriers limiting the integration of knowledge generated within a subfield into the broader intellectual discourse of its field.




chapbook
, the name given since the 19th century to a kind of small, cheaply printed book or pamphlet hawked by chapmen (i.e. pedlars) from the 16th century to the early 19th century, and containing ballads, fairy‐tales, old romances, accounts of famous criminals, and other popular entertainments.

━━ n. 【史】(物語や歌の)呼売り本 ((昔,行商人が売り歩いた)); 小冊子, (しばしば詩の)パンフレット.

disseminate
verb [T] FORMAL
to spread or give out something, especially news, information, ideas, etc., to a lot of people:
One of the organization's aims is to disseminate information about the disease.

What is one word that means 'sharing/spreading knowledge'? - Quora

https://www.quora.com/What-is-one-word-that-means-sharing-spreading-knowledge
“Disseminate” is a verb that means to spread something, especially information, widely. Noun form is “Dissemination”. “Promulgate”, a verb, can also be used at ...
dissemination
noun [U] FORMAL
the dissemination of information

grislly
adj., -li·er, -li·est.
Inspiring repugnance; gruesome. See synonyms at ghastly.
[Middle English grisli, from Old English grislīc.]
grisliness gris'li·ness n.





grisly

Line breaks: grisly
Pronunciation: /ˈɡrɪzli /



ADJECTIVE (grisliergrisliest)

Causing horror or disgust:the town was shaken by a series of grisly crimes

Origin

old english grislic 'terrifying', of Germanic origin; related to Dutch griezelig.
chapbooks
For over two centuries, from the 17th to the 19th, street literature in the form of chapbooks and broadsides provided the basic reading matter of the poor in Britain. Chapbooks were paper-covered booklets, usually of eight to 24 pages, and they were cheaply, often crudely, printed in their hundreds of thousands by specialist printers all over the country and sold in town streets, at country fairs, and by travelling hawkers for a halfpenny or a penny a time. They contained ballads, romances, folk tales, jokes, riddles, superstitions, news both true and fabricated, reports of trials, grisly murders, last dying speeches of condemned criminals, amazing wonders, sermons, squibs, catchpennies, and whatever else the printers and hawkers thought would take the public fancy. Whenever possible they were illustrated by woodcut illustrations. Chapbooks also provided the first real children's literature, and they proved an excellent means by which folklore could be disseminated across the land. Favourite items were reprinted again and again over the years. Most towns had their printers, but London was the acknowledged centre of the trade. Edinburgh-born James Boswell records in his London Journal for 10 July 1763:
some days ago I went to the old printing-office in Bow Church-yard kept by Dicey, whose family have kept it fourscore years. There are ushered into the world of literature Jack and the Giants, The Seven Wise Men of Gotham, and other story-books which in my dawning years amused me as much as Rasselas does now. I saw the whole scheme with a kind of pleasing romantic feeling to find myself really where all my old darlings were printed. I bought two dozen of the story-books and had them bound up with this title, Curious Productions
Bibliography
The full bibliography list is available here.
  • Leslie Shepard, The History of Street Literature (1973)
  • John Ashton, Chapbooks of the Eighteenth Century (1882)
  • Roger Thompson, Samuel Pepys' Penny Merriments (1976)





2017年7月29日 星期六

pashmina, hopscotching, Klezmer, tolerate 'roughing up' prisoners

Law enforcement agencies rejected Trump's recent remarks.
President Trump advised New York officers: "don't be too nice" during arrests.
USATODAY.COM



Guaranteed to make you want to stand in a meadow somewhere, gazing nobly into the middle distance.

Klezmer - Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Klezmer

Klezmer is a musical tradition of the Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern Europe. Played by professional musicians called klezmorim in ensembles known as kapelye, the ...



hopscotching
Dictionary: hop·scotch (hŏp'skŏch'pronunciation
n.
A children's game in which players toss a small object into the numbered spaces of a pattern of rectangles outlined on the ground and then hop or jump through the spaces to retrieve the object.
intr.v.-scotched-scotch·ing-scotch·es.
To move in or as if in a series of irregular jumps: “hopscotching across dozens of new cable channels” (Harry F. Waters).
[HOP1 + SCOTCH1, a score, line.]
Wikipedia article "Hopscotch".


n. - 跳房子遊戲
v. intr. - 像跳房子遊戲那樣跳

日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 石けり遊び
LONDON — Created 60 years ago as a cornerstone of the British welfare state, the National Health Service is devoted to the principle of free medical care for everyone. But recently it has been wrestling with a problem its founders never anticipated: how to handle patients with complex illnesses who want to pay for parts of their treatment while receiving the rest free from the health service.
Although the government is reluctant to discuss the issue, hopscotching back and forth between private and public care has long been standard here for those who can afford it. But a few recent cases have exposed fundamental contradictions between policy and practice in the system, and tested its founding philosophy to its very limits.

Paying Patients Test British Health Care System


Twist
The Latest Dispute
Between Pakistan
And India: Pashmina
By VIBHUTI AGARWAL
January 10, 2008
NEW DELHI -- In their 60 years as nations and neighbors, Pakistan and India have frequently quarreled -- over cricket, over land, over nuclear testing. The latest area of contention: pashmina.
[A Kashmiri woman weaves traditional handcrafted pashmina on a spinning wheel.]
www.kashmirarts.com/
A Kashmiri woman weaves traditional handcrafted pashmina on a spinning wheel.
An handicrafts association backed by the Indian government has applied to register a Geographical Indicator tag for "Kashmiri Pashmina" as a mark for the rare soft wool from the underbelly of the capra hircus goat. It wants the Kashmiri original -- the wool Westerners call "cashmere" -- to be easily distinguished from imitations as the popularity of pashmina has soared and the word itself has become synonymous with a large scarf of thin wool. In effect, they want the same protection for Kashmiri Pashmina that champagne makers have for their bubbly.
But as a special tribunal in the southern Indian city of Chennai considers the application, the process has hit a snag. The reason: Pakistani authorities say they don't want pashmina from the Pakistani-administered portion of Kashmir to be excluded, or to face recriminations if merchants there use the term. The disputed territory of Kashmir, where producing the prized wool has been among the biggest businesses for centuries, straddles India and Pakistan and has been a key cause of three wars between the two South Asian powers since 1947.
[Pashima shawls come in an array of colors and styles.]
www.kashmirarts.com
Pashima shawls come in an array of colors and styles.
Zulfikar Abbasi, president of the Jammu and Kashmir Chamber of Commerce and Industry in the part of Kashmir currently occupied by Pakistan, claims the Indian government has been trying to pull the wool over its neighbor's eyes by seeking to obtain exclusive rights to the "Kashmiri Pashmina" name without consulting Pakistanis. He adds that the quality of the wool on both sides of the border is the same.
The Indians aren't so sure. "We don't want to comment on the quality of the pashmina produced on the other side," says M.S. Farooqi, director of the Craft Development Institute in Srinagar, a city in Indian-occupied Kashmir, which filed the application.
The tribunal is expected to decide on the issue as soon as mid-January. It may stitch together a compromise and allow both India and Pakistan to use the term. Or it may ask India to refile a joint application with Pakistan. Or it could sour relations further by declaring a victory for India.





pashmina

n.

  1. Fine, downy wool growing beneath the outer hair of feral Himalayan goats.
  2. A soft fabric made of this wool.
[Persian pashmīne, woolen garment, pashmina, from pashmīn, made of wool, from pashm, wool, down.]
A fashion statement in medieval Europe was to wear clothes made of a new cloth, imported from central Asia. The cloth was called "scarlet" and it was the pashmina of its time: vastly popular, frequently imitated but at its highest quality extremely expensive—at least four times the price of ordinary cloth.

『在中世紀歐洲的時尚之最......這是當時 的 pashmina: 普遍受歡迎, 頻繁地被仿效 但最高質量的這異常昂貴....




.


earworm, f-bomb, sexting, flexitarian, obesogenic, energy drink, life coach, tirade

Try not to let this one get stuck in your head.

The Listening Service's top 10 👂🐛👇


We've rounded up 10 of the most hummable tunes from the 2017 season.
BBC.CO.UK




earworm


NOUN

  • 1A catchy song or tune that runs continually through a person's mind.

An exploration of why some tunes refuse to go away.
BBC.IN
f-bomb
noun   drop an f-bomb to use the word fuck in a situation where this might cause great offence [an allusion to the explosive impact of a bomb]

 flexitarian
(flĕk'sĭ-târ'ē-ən) pronunciation
n.
One who normally maintains a vegetarian diet but occasionally makes exceptions and eats meat or fish.

adj.
Of or relating to a diet that is primarily vegetarian but includes meat or fish on occasion.


obesogenic
adjective   medical causing obesity
The power of the 'obesogenic environment' is apparently such that it disempowers us from making choices over what we eat, duping us all the time into thinking that we are making choices when in fact we are just riding the junk-food wave (Spiked)
Life coaching is a practice that helps people identify and achieve personal goals.

(SEX texTING) Sending erotic messages or photos via text messaging. In 2010, a British survey revealed that some 20% of sexting messages were sent to the wrong person. Oops! See SMS and smexting.

tirade[ti・rade]

  • 発音記号[táireid | –]

[名](…への)長く手きびしい非難[攻撃, 演説]((against ...));(…についての)長い熱弁, 長広舌((about ...)).


Earworm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earworm

An earworm, sometimes known as a brainworm, is a catchy piece of music that continually repeats through a person's mind after it is no longer playing. Phrases ...


F-bomb makes it into mainstream dictionary
Associated PressNEW YORK — It's about freakin' time.
The term "F-bomb" first surfaced in newspapers more than 20 years ago but will land Tuesday for the first time in the mainstream Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, along with sexting, flexitarian, obesogenic, energy drink and life coach.
In all, the company picks about 100 additions for the 114-year-old dictionary's annual update, gathering evidence of usage over several years in everything from media to the labels of beer bottles and boxes of frozen food.
So who's responsible for lobbing F-bomb far and wide? Kory Stamper, an associate editor for Merriam-Webster, said she and her fellow word spies at the Massachusetts company traced it back to 1988, in a Newsday story that had the now-dead Mets catcher Gary Carter talking about how he had given them up, along with other profanities.
But the word didn't really take off until the late '90s, after Bobby Knight went heavy on the F-bombs during a locker room tirade.
"We saw another huge spike after Dick Cheney dropped an F-bomb in the Senate in 2004," and again in 2010 when Vice President Joe Biden did the same thing in the same place, Stamper said.
"It's a word that is very visually evocative. It's not just the F-word. It's F-bomb. You know that it's going to cause a lot of consternation and possible damage," she said.
Many online dictionary and reference sites already list F-bomb and other entries Merriam-Webster is only now putting into print. A competitor, Oxford University Press, has F-bomb under consideration for a future update of its New Oxford American Dictionary but beat Merriam-Webster to print on a couple of other newcomers: mash-up, added to the Oxford book in 2005, and cloud computing, included in 2010.
No worries, Stamper said. The dictionary biz isn't a race.
Merriam-Webster's Collegiate gets a cover-to-cover overhaul every decade or so in addition to yearly upgrades. The Springfield, Mass.-based company also picks a defining word of each year closer to Thanksgiving. Among the company's other additions this year, including online at Merriam-Webster.com, and various apps:
The Oprah-inspired "aha moment," the Stephen King-popularized earworm, as in that truly torturous tune you can't get out of your head, and man cave, brain cramp and bucket list.
King, in a 2009 column for Entertainment Weekly headlined "The Trouble With Earworms," wrote of waking up in the middle of the night for a glass of water when he found himself singing a snippet of a lyric.
"My friend the Longhair says that's what you call songs that burrow into your head and commence chewing your brains. The dreaded earworm can turn even a great song into something you'd run from, screaming at the top of your lungs. If only you could," he wrote.
Stamper said the word, a translation of the German ohrwurm, surfaced in English in the late '80s as a way to describe untranslatable words. As a tune that won't leave your head, "It just solidified itself in the national linguistic consciousness in America," she said.
Earworm isn't actually a new word for Merriam-Webster but the definition is to differentiate from the once-sole description of a specific blight on ears of corn.
The first reference found by Merriam-Webster for "aha moment" dates to 1939 in a book of psychology. Its use was sporadic until the '90s, when Oprah Winfrey began using it on her no-longer-on-the-air TV show.
"In fact, aha moment is so closely associated with Oprah that in 2009, she and Mutual of Omaha got involved in a legal imbroglio over Mutual of Omaha's use of the phrase, with Oprah claiming that aha moment was her catchphrase and she had the rights to it," Stamper said.
The case was settled out of court in 2009.
The word "tweet" led last year's new-word highlights from Merriam-Webster. This year's additions are more eclectic, Stamper said.
"This is a list of really descriptive and evocative, fun words. Some years, not so fun. Some years it's a lot of science words. Some years it's a lot of words around really heavy topics," she said.
There are a few of those this time around: copernicium among them.
It's a short-lived, artifically produced radioactive element that has 112 protons and is the most recent addition to the Periodic Table of Elements. It was first created in a German lab in 1996 and named for the astronomer Copernicus.
The recession blues are represented.
Merriam-Webster added "systemic risk" and a new definition for "underwater," to describe the heartbreaking realization that you owe more on your mortgage than your property is worth. Among other new economic terms is an extra definition for "toxic," as it relates to an "asset that has lost so much value that it cannot be sold on the market."
Flexitarian, traced to 1998, is defined as "one whose normally meatless diet occasionally includes meat or fish," while obesogenic (dating to 1986) is an adjective for "promoting excessive weight gain: producing obesity."
Stamper calls flexitarian one in a long line of "you are what you eat" entries.
"As our society has become more aware of our eating patterns, we've seen a proliferation of its use," she said. "There are people who object to the very idea of being a flexitarian, and therefore to the existence of the word."
Obesogenic remains a term more restricted to technical writing, Stamper said. It refers to an environment where something or some pattern — food deserts in a city, for example — is suspected of putting people at risk for obesity.
"Over the last few years, it's showed up quite a bit in more general sources, like The New York Times," she said.
Merriam-Webster leads the dictionary market, said John Morse, president of the privately held company who wouldn't release sales figures. He also wouldn't release a full list of new entries, in part to put off competitors.
"Let them find their own new words," he joked. "It's not a cutthroat business but we like to say it's a bare knuckles business." Morse did acknowledge: "It's harder for some paper dictionaries to stay in business in the era of online dictionaries."
And he allowed for a sneak peak at the Top 25, rounded out by:
Craft beer, e-reader, game changer, a new definition for "gassed" as slang for drained of energy, gastropub, geocaching, shovel-ready (a construction site ready for work) and tipping point.