2016年5月31日 星期二

recurring, disregard, recurrent, figural recurrence, palindrome, chiasmus






"Democracy is the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time."

In a piece from the July 3, 1943, issue of The New Yorker, E. B. White responded to a request from the Writers’ War Board.
NYR.KR|由 THE NEW YORKER 上傳



Joyce on George Meredith

Western Europe was the setting for much of Dr. Gay’s work and Freud was a recurring subject. An urbane and nonbelieving Jew, like Freud, Dr. Gay found in him not only a compelling life and body of work, but an approach to history. 

蓋伊博士的著作多以西歐為研究背景*,一再探討弗洛伊德相關的主題。他就像弗洛伊德,是位沒信教的、溫文爾雅的猶太人。蓋伊認為弗洛伊德的一生和全套的著作、思想都很可觀,可作為歷史研究的方法。蓋伊博士曾在西新英格蘭研究所研究過心理分析,提倡以弗洛伊德技術來研究歷史,他也認為,該領域會被化約為關於童年期的慾望和神經官能症的公式,乃是無稽之談。
recurrent colliers.

When I had the honour of being made President of the Mathematical Association, I did not foresee the unusual responsibility which it entailed. It was my intention to take as the theme of a presidential address the consideration of some aspect of those special subjects to which my own researches have principally been directed. Events have forced me to abandon that intention. It is useless to discuss abstract questions in the midst of dominant practical preoccupation. We cannot disregard the present crisis in European civilization. It affects every function of life. In the harder struggle for existence which lies before the nation, all departments of national effort will be reviewed for judgment. The mere necessity for economy of resources will provoke this reformation.



IBM’s diverse portfolio of information technology (IT) solutions, services and steady base of recurring revenue is expected to provide the company with the competitive edge to weather the current global financial crisis.

HC: "figural recurrence" 的直譯是"修辭格--或比喻的--重提/重述"。


漢學家Andrew H. Plaks *的文學術語 "figural recurrence" 

《劍橋中國文學《金瓶梅》一節》;


....乃已精心設計的重複模式結撰而成。
   "figural recurrence"譯成:"形象迭見"  ,未附原文, p.131

The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature: From 1375

https://books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=0521855594
Kang-i Sun Chang, ‎Stephen Owen - 2010 - ‎Chinese literature
... critics alike have noticed that the novel is constructed out of carefully constructed patterns of repetition or, to borrow a term used by Plaks, "figural recurrence.
---

浦安迪自選《金瓶梅》非集體創作
前後呼應法 .....
   "figural recurrence" 譯成:"形象再現法", 附原文 , p.139

recurrence 

Pronunciation: /rɪˈkʌrəns/ 

NOUN

[MASS NOUN]
The fact of occurring again:a drug used to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer[COUNT NOUN]: fifty-two patients had recurrences of intestinal problems


melanoma

melanoma黑色素瘤是一种主要在皮肤的恶性黑色素细胞肿瘤。是皮肤癌中罕见的一种,但恶性程度高,是皮肤癌的主要死亡原因之一[1]。目前唯一有效的治疗方法是在肿瘤厚度小于1毫米时手术切除肿瘤[2] 。

murdrum (MUR-drum)

noun
1. The killing of a human being in a secret manner.
2. The fine payable to the king by the hundred where such a killing occurred, unless the killer was produced or the victim proved to be a Saxon.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin, from Old French, murdre, murder.

Usage
"[F]or the unsolved murders of Frenchmen, they inflicted a particularly punitive version of the long-lasting murdrum fine ..." — Saint George for England. Rebecca Colman, Saint George for England, Contemporary Review, Apr 1997. Did you notice that today's word is a palindrome? Two other palindromic words have made the AWAD list so far: minim and Nauruan. -Anu

re・cur


Occur again periodically or repeatedly:when the symptoms recurred, the doctor diagnosedsomething different(as adjective recurringa recurring theme

(Of a thought, image, or memory) come back to one’s mind:Oglethorpe’s words kept recurring to him
(recur to) Go back to (something) in thought or speech:the book remained a favourite and she constantlyrecurred to it
━━ vi. (-rr-) (話が)前に戻る ((to)); 回想する, (考えが)再び浮ぶ ((to)); 再発する, 繰返す; 【数】循環する.
re・cur・rence ━━ n. 再発; 回想; 元へ戻ること.
re・cur・rent
 ━━ a. 回帰[再発,循環]する.
re・cur・rent・ly ad.
re・cur・ring ━━ a. 繰り返し起こる; 循環する.
recurring decimal 【数】循環小数.
re・cur・sion ━━ n. 【コンピュータ】再帰, 反復; 【数】帰納.
recursion formula 【数】帰納式, 回帰公式.
re・cur・sive ━━ a. 【コンピュータ】再帰的な.
recursive call 【コンピュータ】再帰的呼び出し, リカーシブ・コール.
recursive procedure 【コンピュータ】再帰的手続き.

palindrome

(păl'ĭn-drōm') pronunciation


n
. - 回文 A word, phrase, verse, or sentence that reads the same backward or forward. For example: A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!

palindrome, a word (like deed, , eye, or tenet) that remains the same if read backwards; or a sentence or verse in which the order of letters is the same reading backwards or forwards, disregarding punctuation and spaces between words: Madam, I'm Adam.


A segment of double-stranded DNA in which the nucleotide sequence of one strand reads in reverse order to that of the complementary strand.縺向相反而鹼序相同或近於相同的DNA的構造;迴折
遺傳的旋轉對稱順序
[From Greek palindromos, running back again, recurring : palin, again + dromos, a running.]
palindromic pal'in·dro'mic (-drō'mĭk, -drŏm'ĭk) adj.


張先生來函再解釋
早!Palinode還是第一次聽到。實在無知。對修辭學我是現學現賣(學而時習之),開totorial實在不敢。
昨晚翻閱陳望道的《修辭學發凡》(到目前我還是奉為經典),發現他把chiasmus和Palindrome同列為「回文」,而且以chiasmus(書中並未列英文,是我附會)為先,也即我們所熟知的「回文」(palindrome)反而是「後來有人好奇,定要做到詞序完全可以不拘,無論順讀、倒讀都可成文。」所舉例子都出自《老子》:
信者不美、美者不信
善者不辯、辯者不善
知者不博、博者不知
可見這是很古老的修辭格,但依現代的需求,應該和palindrome分家。大陸年來對修辭格常有新見(台灣似較保守),二年前在大陸買得一本《修辭新格》(福建教育出版社,譚永祥主編),可能已有此格,可惜此書好意借給一位教授朋友,迄今未還(可見內容還不錯),無法印證,可能要設法重買了。
張華 上

---
 chiasmus
 …a rhetorical or literary figure in which words, grammatical constructions, or concepts are repeated in reverse order

disregard
tr.v., -gard·ed, -gard·ing, -gards.
  1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.
  2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.
n.
Lack of thoughtful attention or due regard.

disregarder dis're·gard'er n.
disregardful dis're·gard'ful adj. recur Show phonetics
verb [I] -rr-
to happen many times or to happen again:
The theme of freedom recurs throughout her writing.
If the pain/problem/trouble, etc. recurs, come and see me.

recurring Show phonetics
adjective (ALSO recurrent)
The father-daughter relationship is a recurring theme in her novels.
For much of his life he suffered from recurring bouts of depression.
LeFanu suffered all his life from a recurrent nightmare that he was trapped in a falling house.

recurrence Show phonetics
noun [C or U]
The doctor told him to go to the hospital if there was a recurrence of his symptoms.re·cur·rent (rĭ-kûr'ənt, -kŭr'-) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Occurring or appearing again or repeatedly.
  2. Anatomy. Turning in a reverse direction. Used of blood vessels and nerves.
recurrently re·cur'rent·ly adv.

overland, scrimp, Avatar, Avanti , skimp, skimpy, caboodle

BUSINESS

Riding the New Silk Road
The network of routes known as the Silk Road has been revived as a faster, overland alternative to shipping electronics from China to European markets by sea.



Yangon Journal
Embracing the West, on Burmese Terms
By THE NEW YORK TIMES


The members of Me N Ma Girls in Myanmar are battling conservative parents, censors and boyfriends who think it is outrageous that they perform in such skimpy outfits.




RISING COSTS FORCE STUDENTS TO SKIMP ON TEXTBOOKS
As the cost of textbooks continues to rise, many college students are choosing to skimp on textbooks to save money. Seven out of 10 undergraduates surveyed at 13 college campuses said they had not purchased one or more textbooks because the cost was too high, according to a new survey released Thursday by the U.S. Public Interest Research Group. The Government Accountability Office has estimated that textbooks cost a quarter the average tuition for state universities and three-fourths the average tuition at community colleges. The article is in The Huffington Post.

The Avatar Effect 阿凡達效應

◎俞智敏
Hollywood blockbusters aren’t usually notable for their artistic or political subtlety. And James Cameron’s latest sci-fi hit, "Avatar," would seem to be no exception, going by the lament of some critics that the film’s impressive special effects are undercut by a skimpy story line and flat dialogue.
好萊塢巨片通常並非以其藝術或政治敏銳性著稱。詹姆斯.卡麥隆的最新熱門科幻電影「阿凡達」似乎也不例外,依照某些批評者的說法,此片的故事情節短缺、對話單調,讓片中驚人的特效失色不少。


New Opera? Great Idea. Good Luck! By ANTHONY TOMMASINI
Skillful creators have been tempted to milk music for its elemental power and scrimp on the specifics of storytelling.


New York City teems with questionable urban legends. But the fable about the postal clerk and his wife, a Brooklyn librarian, scrimping to amass an astounding collection of modern art, cramming all 5,000 pieces in a rent-controlled one-bedroom apartment, then donating the whole kit and caboodle to the National Gallery of Art in Washington and galleries in all 50 states, is true.


iPad Mini Design "Could Outshine the New iPad"
"Apple did not skimp on the aesthetics of the much-anticipated 'iPad mini.'"

caboodle[ca・boo・dle]

  • 発音記号[kəbúːdl]     [名]((俗))一群, 群れ(lot).
the whole (kit and) caboodle
何[だれ]もかも, 全部.


skimp
v., skimped, skimp·ing, skimps. v.tr.
  1. To deal with hastily, carelessly, or with poor material: concentrated on reelection, skimping other matters.
  2. To provide for or supply inadequately; be stingy with: accused them of skimping defense funding.
v.intr.
To be stingy or very thrifty.

adj.
Scanty; skimpy.

[Obsolete skimp, scanty, perhaps from alteration of SCRIMP.]

 skimpy
(skĭm') pronunciation
adj., -i·er, -i·est.
  1. Inadequate, as in size or fullness, especially through economizing or stinting: a skimpy meal.
  2. Unduly thrifty; niggardly.
skimpily skimp'i·ly adv.
skimpiness skimp'i·ness n.


scrimp 
verb [I]
to save money by spending less than is necessary to reach an acceptable standard:
There is a risk that the debt-ridden airline that may be tempted to scrimp on maintenance or security.


o·ver·land  (vr-lnd, -lnd)
adj.
Accomplished, traversing, or passing over the land instead of the ocean: an overland journey; an overland route.
adv.
By way of land: traveled overland to the ranch.

scrimp

発音〔skrimp〕
━━ v. 切詰める, けちけちする ((on)).
scrimp and save [scrape]  倹約する.
scrimp・y ━━ a. とぼしい; けちけちした.



Meet John Guy, The Met's curator of South and Southeast Asian art. In this Live video, John leads a tour of "Encountering Vishnu: The Lion Avatar in Indian Temple Drama," which closes on Sunday, June 5.http://met.org/1Z5OPmo


Avatar

n.

  1. The incarnation of a Hindu deity, especially Vishnu, in human or animal form.
  2. An embodiment, as of a quality or concept; an archetype: the very avatar of cunning.
  3. A temporary manifestation or aspect of a continuing entity: occultism in its present avatar.
[Sanskrit avatāraḥ, descent (of a deity from heaven), avatar : ava, down + tarati, he crosses.]
Avanti
Historic kingdom, north-central India. Located on the overland trade routes between northern and southern India, it lay within present-day Madhya Pradesh. Its capital was at Ujjayini (near present-day Ujjain). It flourished in the 6th – 4th centuries BC as one of the great powers of northern India. In the 4th century BC it was conquered and annexed by Candra Gupta Maurya of Magadha. Ujjayini, one of the seven holy cities of Hinduism, was renowned for its beauty and wealth; it also became a centre of early Buddhism and Jainism.


mandatory, furlough, leave, moderator, dominion, ransack, capacious, cubicle, get out of the gate





During furloughs in the United States, he acquired a master's degree from Princeton University in 1938, followed by a doctorate from Princeton in 1948.




Photo: On a street in Washington, D.C., Matthew Giamo of Alexandria, Va., held up a sign seeking work. He lost his contract job with the Department of Health and Human Services last year, and his wife is now furloughed from her federal job.

Photos from Israel, Pakistan, South Korea and China in Pictures of the Day: http://nyti.ms/1go8adL

Photograph by Alex Wong/ Getty Images


Exclusive: Debate-Moderator Role Under Scrutiny
In a rare example of political unity, both the Romney and Obama campaigns have expressed concern about how the moderator of last week's town hall has publicly described her role


During his second furlough, which closed when he sailed from Vancouver on October 16, 1895, Dr. MacKay was elected moderator of the General Assembly of his church, and visited many points throughout the Dominion, in the United States, and in Scotland, addressing congregations and conventions. Everywhere and on all occasions the impression made was that of a great man and a hero. The demand for a fuller record of his life and work became increasingly virgent. Friends who knew that his information about Formosa was more extensive and more reliable than that of any other living man, and who believed that an account of his experiences and work would stimulate the faith and zeal of the church, but who feared lest, amid the uncertainties and perils to which his life is constantly exposed, his career should be cut short before any record that might be given to the public had been prepared, impressed upon him the duly of meeting this reasonable demand. To a man of his ardent temperament and active habits prolonged literary work is the most irksome drudgery. He would rather face a heathen mob than write a chapter for a book. But convinced of its importance, he undertook the task, receiving valuable assistance from the Rev. W. S. McTavish, B.D. For weeks together he did little else than ransack note-books and journals, and explore the stores of his capacious memory.


Workers Face Pay Cuts, Not Furloughs

Local and state governments, as well as some companies, are resorting to wage reductions, often to avoid layoffs. Above, a strike at a Mott’s plant over pay cuts.


furlough, cubicle On a Furlough, but Never Leaving the Cubicle
By SUSAN SAULNY and ROBBIE BROWN
Plans to turn unpaid days into modest holidays have given way to a different reality as some employees work quietly — and sometimes openly — through furloughs.


To Save Money, States Turn to Furloughs

By KATHARINE Q. SEELYE
At least 15 states are in various stages of considering or implementing furloughs.





United Will Furlough About 950 Pilots
United intends to furlough about 950 of its 6,500 pilots by the end of 2009 as a result of plans to reduce the fleet.



The Los Angeles Times leads with a look at how many firms are opting for broad-based salary cuts and mandatory furloughs rather than layoffs to stay afloat, hoping to get out of the gate quickly as the economy recovers.


目前我有一個短語不明就是「get out of the gate」,能麻煩賜教麼?--用心閣 07:53 2005年1月31日 (UTC)
不是條目中的。如下:
I watched one project get out of the gate fast with a useful, simple web-based trading system. Developers were flying by the seat of their pants, but simple software can be written with little attention to design. As a result of this initial success, expectations for future development were sky-high. It was at this point that I was approached to work on the second version. When I took a close look, I saw that they lacked a domain model, or even a common language on the project, and were saddled with an unstructured design. So when the project leaders did not agree with my assessment, I declined the job. A year later, they found themselves bogged down and unable to deliver a second version. Although their use of technology was not exemplary, it was the business logic that overcame them. Their first release had ossified prematurely into a high-maintenance legacy.
如此說來,應該翻譯成「起步」,原意指賽馬會開始比賽時,參賽馬匹出閘 --金翅大鵬鳥


2009
WEdwards Deming once said, “Change is not necessary. Survival is not mandatory.”

The Los Angeles Times leads with a look at how many firms are opting for broad-based salary cuts and mandatory furloughs rather than layoffs to stay afloat, hoping to get out of the gate quickly as the economy recovers.

A loss by Mr. Ma, which campaign analysts say is unlikely but now possible, would be a major setback for China’s leaders. They have cultivated the Nationalists in recent years to undermine Taiwan’s current pro-independence president, Chen Shui-bian, and reduce the chances that his Democratic Progressive Party will hold the presidency after Mr. Chen’s mandatory retirement.


likely 

adjective

describes something that will probably happen or is expected:
Do remind me because I'm likely to forget.
What's the likely outcome of this whole business?
I suppose that might happen but it's not very likely.
[+ that] It's quite likely that we'll be in Spain this time next year.
INFORMAL "Do you want to join me on a ten-mile run?" "Not likely (= certainly not)!"
NOTE: The opposite is unlikely.
unlikely Phonetic
adjective
not likely:
[+ (that)] It's pretty unlikely (that) they'll turn up now - it's nearly ten o'clock.
He seems an unlikely-looking policeman (= He is not what I expect a policeman to look like).


possible
adjective [+ (that)]
that might or might not happen:
It's possible (that) Mira might turn up tonight.
"Do you think he'll end up in prison?" "It's very possible."
That's one possible solution to the problem.
Compare probable.


mandatory adjective FORMAL
describes something which must be done, or which is demanded by law:
The minister is calling for mandatory prison sentences for people who assault police officers.
Athletes must undergo a mandatory drugs test before competing in the championship.
In 1991, the British government made it mandatory to wear rear seat belts in cars.

man・da・to・ry



  
━━ a., n. 統治を委任された; 命令の, 義務的[上]の; =mandatary.
mandatory administration [rule] 委任統治.
mandate




furlough
noun [C] US
a period of time that a worker or a soldier is allowed to be absent, especially to return temporarily to their own town or country

furlough
verb [T] US
to allow or force someone to be absent temporarily from work:
After safety concerns, the company furloughed all 4000 of it's employees.

 fur・lough



━━ n., vt. 休暇[賜暇(しか)](を与える).
 on furlough 休暇中で.
 furlough slip 一時解雇通知.


furlough
noun [C] US
a period of time that a worker or a soldier is allowed to be absent, especially to return temporarily to their own town or country

furlough
verb [T] US
to allow or force someone to be absent temporarily from work:
After safety concerns, the company furloughed all 4000 of it's employees.

fur・lough



━━ n., vt. 休暇[賜暇(しか)](を与える).
on furlough 休暇中で.
furlough slip 一時解雇通知.



fur·lough (fûr') pronunciation
n.
    1. A leave of absence or vacation, especially one granted to a member of the armed forces.
    2. A usually temporary layoff from work.
    3. A leave of absence from prison granted to a prisoner.
  1. The papers or documents authorizing a leave: The soldiers had their furloughs in their breast pockets.
tr.v., -loughed, -lough·ing, -loughs.
  1. To grant a leave to.
  2. To lay off (workers).
[Alteration of vorloffe, furlogh, from Dutch verlof, from Middle Dutch.]




furlough[fur・lough]

  • 発音記号[fə'ːrlou]
[名][U][C]
1 《軍事》賜暇(しか), 休暇;賜暇認可証
on furlough
休暇で.
▼米陸軍では正式にはleaveを使う;((英))では特に海外勤務する公務員や兵士に与えられるものをいう.
2 一時解雇, レイオフ(layoff).
━━[動](他)
1 …に賜暇[休暇]を与える.
2 〈労働者を〉一時解雇する.
[オランダ語verlof「許可」. △FOR, LEAVE2. -ghは古くはenoughなどと同じく 〔f〕 と発音したが, のちに消えた]




moderator[mod・er・a・tor]

  • 発音記号[mɑ'dərèitər | mɔ'd-]
[名]
1 仲裁者, 調停者.
2 調節器, 調整器
a moderator of passions
激情をなだめるもの.
3 (立法府の会議・公開討論会などの)議長;(クイズ番組や討論会などの)司会者.
4 ((英))(Oxford大学の)第一次学士試験の試験官.
5 《物理学》モデレーター, 減速材[体].
6 (プロテスタントで)長老派教会会議議長.
mod・er・a・tor・shìp
[名]

dominion[do・min・ion]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[dəmínjən]
[名]
1 [U]((文))支配権[力], 統治権, 主権
havehold] dominion over ...
…を支配する
exercise dominion over ...
…に対して支配権をふるう
be under the dominion of ...
…の支配下にある.
2 [U][C]((文))支配, 統治.
3 ((形式))領地, 領土;(封建領主の)所領
the overseas dominions
海外領土.
4 ((the D-))(もと英連邦内の)自治領.
5 ((〜s))《神学》=domination 2.




ransack[ran・sack]

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[rǽnsæk]
[動](他)
1 …を(…を求めて)くまなく捜す, 捜し求める((for ...))
ransack one's dictionaries for a word
辞書類を片っぱしから調べて1つの語を捜す.
2 〈土地などを〉略奪のためにくまなく捜す, (…を求めて)荒し回る((for ...)).
ran・sack・er
[名]



capacious[ca・pa・cious]

  • 発音記号[kəpéiʃəs]
[形]
1 ((形式))(容量の)大きい;〈部屋などが〉広い, 広々とした
capacious pockets
たくさんはいるポケット
a capacious waistcoat
ゆったりしたチョッキ.
2 包容力のある
a man of capacious mind
心の広い人.
ca・pa・cious・ly
[副]
ca・pa・cious・ness
[名]