2014年11月29日 星期六

pleated, bowler, canister, spaniel, obsequious, brown-nosing

Courtesy of the Print Collection, Lewis Walpole Library, Yale University

3-foot blue canisters of nitro
along a conveyor belt, slow fish
speaking the language of silence.
From the Original Picture by John Collett in the possession of Carington Bowles. Printed for & Sold by Carington Bowles, at his Map & Print Warehouse, No. 69 in St. Pauls Church Yard, London. Publish'd as the Act directs (erased)
Four young ladies in pleated gowns and hats bowl outside a country inn, one just releasing the ball at a set of ninepins. At the other end of the alley, a little girl is ready to set up more pins. Two young ladies stand together on the left beyond the bowler, one offering the other a bowl of snacks. In the center background, another lady leans over a table with wine bottle and glass and blows the foam off a large cannister(?) of beer she holds in her hands. A spaniel watches the bowling from beneath the table. On a large tree in the background, a tally board, halved by a chalk line, shows the marks of two teams. A ball, a tipped pin, and a clay pipe with broken stem lie in the foreground. Surviving impressions includes the date "2 Feb 1779."
33x 25 cm.
Yale Center for British Art (no date, B1970.3.773)
13.7 x
11 cm.
Lewis Walpole Library (numbered 290, no date, 778.1.1.5)

The container was labeled "baby food," but authorities say security personnel became suspicious when the woman who owned the suitcase claimed the canister held pickles.
A fire department bomb squad removed the item from the airport and detonated it, discovering the mangoes.

The heart that spanielled me at heels.

 For the first time, the story of this revolutionary line of clothing is being told. The concept of Pleats Please Issey Miyake is explored through a vast array of texts and images, tracing its journey from inception, through material development, to its public reception. The explanation of its evolution also includes, also for the first time, a section not only revealing the creation of the original thread — but also the pleating process!


Two Cheers for Web U!


Take away the dorm rooms, the classroom banter, the brown-nosing, the keg parties and the tuition, and is it still college?

noun [C]
a narrow fold in a piece of cloth made by pressing or sewing two parts of the cloth together

a pleated skirt
Close-up of a pleated shade

bowl (ROLL)
verb [I or T]
to roll a ball along a smooth grass or artificial surface during a game

noun [C]
a large ball used in the game of bowls

noun [U] (UK ALSO tenpin bowling)
a game played inside, in which you roll a heavy ball down a track to try to knock down a group of pins (= tall, thin wooden objects)

noun [C]
a metal, usually cylindrical, container for gases or dry things:
The police fired tear gas canisters into the crowd.

  1. Any of several breeds of small-sized to medium-sized dogs, usually having drooping ears, short legs, and a wavy, silky coat.
  2. A docile or servile person.
[Middle English spainol, from Old French espaignol, Spaniard, Spanish dog, from Vulgar Latin *Hispāniōlus, Spanish, from Hispānia, Spain.]


Definition of brown-nose


  • (also brown-noser) an extremely obsequious person: a little brown-noser who wants to make sure I know he’s working on Saturday


[with object]
curry favour with (someone) by acting very obsequiously:academics were brown-nosing the senior faculty [no object]:if I can’t learn to brown-nose, at least I can keep my mouth shut

Full of or exhibiting servile compliance; fawning.
[Middle English, from Latin obsequiōsus, from obsequium, compliance, from obsequī, to comply : ob-, to; see ob– + sequī, to follow.]
obsequiously ob·se'qui·ous·ly adv.
obsequiousness ob·se'qui·ous·ness n.

2014年11月26日 星期三

pet peeve, querulous, peevish , perverse, peeve, discombobulate, perversity

Yale University Press: Anna Karenina is a seminal work in literature. How do you approach translating something like that?
Marian Schwartz: A question straight out of a Marx Brothers movie! The answer, of course, is “very carefully.” Every critic, scholar, and reader has an opinion, a pet peeve, a particular passage dear to her heart. Pity the poor translator who crosses one of them.
China’s economy

Perverse advantage
Myron Tribus "Perversity Principle": "If you try to improve the performance of a system of people, machines, and procedures by setting numerical goals for the improvement of individual parts of the system, the system will defeat your efforts and you will pay a price where you least expect it.".[8]

Bryden listed his impressive catch, among them Anna Manahan, from Waterford, playing Mrs Rooney - flopping "down flat on the road like a big fat jelly out of a bowl"; Niall Tobin, from Cork, as blind, querulous Mr Rooney; Dubliners David Kelly and John Kavanagh as Mr Tyler, a retired bill broker and Mr Slocum the racecourse clerk; Belfast's James Ellis as Mr Barrell, the station master; and Dan Colley, a pure county Dubliner, as the boy.  

On the Road, Packing Querulous Erudition By STEPHEN HOLDEN

In Abbas Kiarostami's "Certified Copy," a couple (Juliette Binoche and William Shimell) drive through Tuscany arguing about art, representation and authenticity.

querulous [Show phonetics]
often complaining, especially in a weak high voice:
He became increasingly dissatisfied and querulous in his old age.
quer • u • lous
kwérjuləs | kwéru-
1 不満の多い(⇔contented).
2 〈声・話し(方)などが〉不満[不平]を示す;おこりっぽい(peevish)
in a querulous tone
[ラテン語querulus (querī不平をいう+-ULOUS). △QUARREL1

The best of these canvases convert Courbet's inborn dissonance into a commanding discombobulation. They challenge and seduce with their brusqueness of surface, inconsistencies of space or scale, emotional ambiguities and alternately frank and improbable accounts of the female form. Some paintings barely hold together; others collapse inward into strange, shapeless masses.
discombobulate(dĭs'kəm-bŏb'yə-lāt') pronunciation
tr.v., -lat·ed, -lat·ing, -lates.
To throw into a state of confusion. See synonyms at confuse.
[動](他)((米略式))〈計画などを〉狂わせる, 失敗させる, 〈敵などを〉混乱させる.
[Perhaps alteration of DISCOMPOSE.]
discombobulation dis'com·bob'u·la'tion n.

pet hate UK (US pet peeve ) noun [C]
something that annoys you a lot
That's one of my pet hates - people who smoke while other people are eating. 


Pronunciation: /pəˈvəːs/
Translate perverse | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish
Definition of perverse


  • 1showing a deliberate and obstinate desire to behave in a way that is unreasonable or unacceptable:Kate’s perverse decision not to cooperate held good
  • 2contrary to the accepted or expected standard or practice:in two general elections the outcome was quite perverse
  • Law (of a verdict) against the weight of evidence or the direction of the judge on a point of law.
  • 3sexually perverted: an evil life dedicated to perverse pleasure films depicting behaviour which seemed perverse or deviant were seen as more suitable for private therapy than for public consumption



[sentence adverb]:perversely, she felt nearer to tears now than at any other moment in the conversation




late Middle English (in the sense 'turned away from what is right or good'): from Old French pervers(e), from Latin perversus 'turned about', from the verb pervertere (see pervert)

peeve(pēv) pronunciation
tr.v., peeved, peev·ing, peeves.
To cause to be annoyed or resentful. See synonyms at annoy.

  1. A vexation; a grievance.
  2. A resentful mood: in a peeve about the delays.
[Back-formation from PEEVISH.]

Bright, peevish HC...

Jonathan Swift
When I come to be old.
Not to marry a young Woman.
Not to keep young Company unless they reely desire it.
Not to be peevish or morose, or suspicious. 

pee·vish ('vĭsh) pronunciation
    1. Querulous or discontented.
    2. Ill-tempered.
  1. Contrary; fractious.
[Middle English pevish, possibly from Latin perversus, past participle of perversus. See perverse.]
peevishly pee'vish·ly adv.
peevishness pee'vish·ness n.

pee·vish (pēvĭsh) pronunciation

    1. Querulous or discontented.
    2. Ill-tempered.
  1. Contrary; fractious.
[Middle English pevish, possibly from Latin perversus, past participle of perversus. See perverse.]
peevishly pee'vish·ly adv.
peevishness pee'vish·ness n.

per·verse (pər-vûrs', pûr'vûrs') pronunciation

  1. Directed away from what is right or good; perverted.
  2. Obstinately persisting in an error or fault; wrongly self-willed or stubborn.
    1. Marked by a disposition to oppose and contradict.
    2. Arising from such a disposition.
  3. Cranky; peevish.
[Middle English pervers, from Old French, from Latin perversus, past participle of pervertere, to pervert. See pervert.]
perversely per·verse'ly adv.
perverseness per·verse'ness n.


  • 発音記号[pərvə'ːrsəti]

1 [U]つむじ曲がり, 強情;邪悪.
2 倒錯, 変態.

2014年11月25日 星期二

magazine, chamber. baloney, downed, dyslexia, entrust, distrustful, dread, downgrade

Many Japanese are worried about so-called hot spots, radioactive patches located in otherwise uncontaminated areas. Distrustful of official government information, they have now started collecting data themselves.

Copter Downed by Taliban Fire; Elite U.S. Unit Among Dead

Among the dead were elite Navy Seal commandos from the broader unit that killed Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, though none were involved in that raid.

Amid Criticism on Downgrade of U.S., S.&P. Fires Back

A day after Standard & Poor's downgraded the creditworthiness of the United States government, it defended its decision and warned that further downgrades may come.

We require to know what is possible now in England, a ntion conscious of its high achievements, and of great failures, shaken to its foundations, distrustful of the old ways, and dreading fantastic novelties.
The problem was first described as a small plane downed in the Hudson River. The officials distrusted it.
“As you recall, that was what everyone said on 9/11,” said one federal official who was in Virginia at the time. “For the U.K. bombings, on July 7, 2005, the first report was an electrical fire. So we’re very accustomed to hearing, ‘Oh, no, it’s nothing.’ ”

At least a half-dozen construction unions and a handful of public pension funds had entrusted money to Mr. Madoff, according to the list. Some of New York City's most prominent real estate figures, reeling from the property downturn, also appear to be victims of the alleged fraud.

Tracing Business Acumen to Dyslexia

Published: December 6, 2007

It has long been known that dyslexics are drawn to running their own businesses, where they can get around their weaknesses in reading and writing and play on their strengths. But a new study of entrepreneurs in the United States suggests that dyslexia is much more common among small-business owners than even the experts had thought.
The report, compiled by Julie Logan, a professor of entrepreneurship at the Cass Business School in London, found that more than a third of the entrepreneurs she had surveyed — 35 percent — identified themselves as dyslexic. The study also concluded that dyslexics were more likely than nondyslexics to delegate authority, to excel in oral communication and problem solving and were twice as likely to own two or more businesses.
“We found that dyslexics who succeed had overcome an awful lot in their lives by developing compensatory skills,” Professor Logan said in an interview. “If you tell your friends and acquaintances that you plan to start a business, you’ll hear over and over, ‘It won’t work. It can’t be done.’ But dyslexics are extraordinarily creative about maneuvering their way around problems.”
The study was based on a survey of 139 business owners in a wide range of fields across the United States. Professor Logan called the number who said they were dyslexic “staggering,” and said it was significantly higher than the 20 percent of British entrepreneurs who said they were dyslexic in a poll she conducted in 2001.
She attributed the greater share in the United States to earlier and more effective intervention by American schools to help dyslexic students deal with their learning problems. Approximately 10 percent of Americans are believed to have dyslexia, experts say.
One reason that dyslexics are drawn to entrepreneurship, Professor Logan said, is that strategies they have used since childhood to offset their weaknesses in written communication and organizational ability — identifying trustworthy people and handing over major responsibilities to them — can be applied to businesses.
“The willingness to delegate authority gives them a significant advantage over nondyslexic entrepreneurs, who tend to view their business as their baby and like to be in total control,” she said.
William J. Dennis Jr., senior research fellow at the Research Foundation of the National Federation of Independent Business, a trade group in Washington, said the study’s results “fit into the pattern of what we know about small-business owners.”
“Entrepreneurs are hands-on people who push a minimum of paper, do lots of stuff orally instead of reading and writing, and delegate authority, all of which suggests a high verbal facility,” Mr. Dennis said. “Compare that with corporate managers who read, read, read.”
Indeed, according to Professor Logan, only 1 percent of corporate managers in the United States have dyslexia.
Much has been written about the link between dyslexia and entrepreneurial success. Fortune Magazine, for example, ran a cover story five years ago about dyslexic business leaders, including Richard Branson, founder of Virgin Atlantic Airways; Charles R. Schwab, founder of the discount brokerage firm that bears his name; John T. Chambers, chief executive of Cisco; and Paul Orfalea, founder of the Kinko’s copy chain.
Similarly, Rosalie P. Fink, a professor at Lesley College in Cambridge, Mass., wrote a paper in 1998 on 60 highly accomplished people with dyslexia.
But Professor Logan said hers was the first study that she knew of that tried to measure the percentage of entrepreneurs who have dyslexia. Carl Schramm, president of the Kauffman Foundation, which financed the research, agreed. He said the findings were surprising but, he said, there was no previous baseline to measure it against.
Emerson Dickman , president of the International Dyslexia Association in Baltimore and a lawyer in Maywood, N.J., said the study’s findings “just make sense.”
“Individuals who have difficulty reading and writing tend to deploy other strengths,” Mr. Dickman, who has dyslexia, said. “They rely on mentors, and as a result, become very good at reading other people and delegating duties to them. They become adept at using visual strengths to solve problems.”
Mr. Orfalea, 60, who left Kinko’s — now FedEx Kinko’s — seven years ago, and who now dabbles in a hodgepodge of business undertakings, is almost proud of having dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
“I get bored easily, and that is a great motivator,” he said. “I think everybody should have dyslexia and A.D.D.
He attributes his success to his difficulty with reading and writing because it forced him to master verbal communication.
“I didn’t have a lot of self-confidence as a kid,” he said. “And that is for the good. If you have a healthy dose of rejection in your life, you are going to have to figure out how to do it your way.”
He said his biggest advantage was his realization that because of his many inadequacies, he had to delegate important tasks to subordinates. “My motto is: Anybody else can do anything better than me,” he said.
Danny Kessler, 26, also has dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mr. Kessler founded Angels with Attitude, which holds seminars for women on self-defense. He is a co-founder of Club E Network (www.clubenetwork.com), which sponsors “networking events,” runs an online chat room for entrepreneurs and produces television shows about them.
Like Mr. Orfalea, he said he had low self-esteem as a child, and now views that as a catapult into the entrepreneurial world. “I told myself I would never be a lawyer or a doctor,” he said. “But I wanted to make a lot of money. And I knew business was the only way I was going to do it.”
In high school, Mr. Kessler said, “I became cool with the teachers. I developed a rapport with them. I was able to convince almost all of them to nudge my grade up just a bit. I adopted a strategy for squeezing through the system.”
As for the importance of entrusting tasks to others, Mr. Kessler says his limitations have endowed him with a “razor sharp” intuition that allows him to ascertain within minutes of meeting people whether he can depend on them and what they would be good at in an organization.
Drew Devitt, 45, who also has dyslexia, said he started Thoughtware Products in college to produce videos for real estate brokers. Today, he runs a successful $9 million company in Aston, Pa., called New Way Air Bearings that makes bearings for precision machine tools.
Asked about mentors, Mr. Devitt ticks off a list, and it is a long one, beginning with his parents, who sold imported bearing materials out of their home.
Indirectly, he confirmed that he gives free rein to his deputies. Asked about the claim on his company’s Web site that it is a “market leader,” he sighed. “That’s not something I would say,” he said. “Actually, it’s baloney. But that’s what our marketing people came up with. You can’t do everything. You have to let people do their job.”

The United Nations has said it is still waiting for the government to approve the start of relief efforts in the wake of the cyclone.
The Burmese regime is normally distrustful of outside influences.
Burma 'must allow aid workers in'


Line breaks: ba|lo¦ney
Pronunciation: /bəˈləʊni



1[MASS NOUN] Foolish or deceptive talknonsense:I don’t buy it—it’s all a load of baloney
2North American term for bologna.


1920ssense 1 said to be a corruption of bologna.

distrust Show phonetics
noun [U]
when you do not trust someone or something:
The two groups have existed in a state of mutual distrust for centuries.
She has a (deep) distrust of journalists.

distrust Show phonetics
verb [T]
In spite of its election success, the government is still deeply distrusted on key health and education issues.

distrustful Show phonetics

verb [T + adverb or preposition]
to give someone a thing or a duty for which they are responsible:
He didn't look like the sort of man you should entrust your luggage to.
Two senior officials have been entrusted with organizing the auction.

distrustful,[形]((通例叙述))信用しない, なかなか信じない, (…への)不信の念を抱いている, (…に)疑念がある((of ...)).

(dĭs-lĕk'sē-ə) pronunciation
A learning disorder marked by impairment of the ability to recognize and comprehend written words.
[New Latin : DYS– + Greek lexis, speech (from legein, to speak).]
━━ n. 【医】失読症.
Dyslexia is a learning disability characterized by problems in reading, spelling, writing, speaking, or listening. In many cases, dyslexia appears to be inherited.

v., dread·ed, dread·ing, dreads.
  1. To be in terror of.
  2. To anticipate with alarm, distaste, or reluctance: dreaded the long drive home.
  3. Archaic. To hold in awe or reverence.
To be very afraid.

  1. Profound fear; terror.
  2. Fearful or distasteful anticipation. See synonyms at fear.
  3. An object of fear, awe, or reverence.
  4. Archaic. Awe; reverence.
  1. Causing terror or fear: a dread disease.
  2. Inspiring awe: the dread presence of the headmaster.
[Middle English dreden, short for adreden, from Old English adrǣdan, from ondrǣdan, to advise against, fear : ond-, and-, against; see un-2 + rǣdan, to advise.]

2014年11月24日 星期一

replicate, period, normalisation ,resumption, foreshadow, period-instrument

Join us at 8 tonight for Carnegie Hall Live with the London-based period-instrument ensemble Arcangelo along with the Russian violinist Alina Ibragimova.
  Japan's resumption of wheat imports comes just in time for ... Washington Post
PORTLAND, Ore. — Japan has agreed to resume importing Northwest soft white wheat two months after a genetically modified rogue strain of the crop ...

War Ritual Aggravates Island Row
Japanese clad in period military uniforms gathered at the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo for the 67th anniversary of Japan's surrender in World War II. As Japan marked the anniversary, strains in relations with its neighbors were otherwise evident Wednesday as South Korea and China issued fresh criticism of Japan's wartime past. China also said it would protest the detention of Hong Kong activists who embarrassed Tokyo with a high-profile landing on a disputed island in the South China Sea, despite having been tracked by up to 10 ships from Japan's coast guard.
She said the United States had expected the test and played down speculation that it was a rebuke for American actions, like the sale of missile defense equipment to Taiwan.
“I do not think it is connected to any other action or event,” Mrs. Clinton said. “We have followed the Chinese development of aerospace capacity for quite some time, and this had been foreshadowed some weeks ago.”

It has been many years since pupils and parents heard the clothing-store jingle that used to signal the beginning of the end of summer vacation: “School bells ring and children sing, ‘It’s back to Robert Hall again.’ ” Today, the resumption of classes is foreshadowed by campaigns for office-supply chains, seeking to sell notebooks, pens, staplers, markers, crayons and other back-to-school merchandise.
Go to Complete Article

Gas resumption "shortly", say Russia, Ukraine
After crisis talks in Moscow, the prime ministers of Russia and Ukraine have said jointly that natural gas supplies to Europe via Ukraine will resumed "shortly."

Taiwan-China meet begins to 'thaw the ice': president-elect 1 day ago TAIPEI (AFP) —

Weekend talks between Chinese President Hu Jintao and Taiwan's vice president-elect have started to "thaw the ice" in ties between the rivals, the island's incoming president Ma Ying-jeou said Monday.The landmark meeting on Saturday between Hu and Taiwan's Vincent Siew on the sidelines of a regional forum in Hainan, southern China, "has started to thaw the ice across the strait," Ma told reporters.Ma, who takes office on May 20, said he was encouraged by the Hu-Siew talks, which were the highest-level contact between the two sides since they split in 1949 at the end of a civil war."We'll push for the reopening of cross-strait negotiations after May 20," said Ma, of the Beijing-friendly Kuomintang (KMT) party.

"Thanks to the Boao meeting, some of the barriers for the resumption of talks have been removed," he said. "The mainland authorities displayed goodwill at the forum."Ma, who won the March presidential election in a landslide, campaigned on a pledge to boost Taiwan's sluggish economy.As part of that pledge, he vowed to improve relations with China, increase trade, tourism and transport links, and work on a peace treaty to end hostilities.He will succeed outgoing President Chen Shui-bian, who angered Beijing over the past eight years with his pro-independence rhetoric.

China still views Taiwan as part of its territory awaiting reunification, by force if necessary.The incoming president said Hu and Siew had exchanged views on cross-strait economic relations in a "natural, friendly and constructive atmosphere".

Ma also said that Beijing had "responded positively" to Taiwan's proposals on weekend charter flights and a further opening-up of the island to mainland tourists."That would make it easier in carrying out our policies after we take office," he said, adding that civilian bodies representing both sides had nearly completed technical talks on the two issues over the past few years.Taiwan has banned direct trade and transport exchanges with the mainland since 1949, and visits to the island by mainland tourists are severely restricted.

Ma said he would name KMT vice chairman Chiang Pin-kung as Taiwan's chief negotiator in dealing with China.Chiang will head the semi-official Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF), which is in charge of civilian exchanges between the island and the mainland."SEF will be responsible for handling cross-strait relations, with the authorisation of the Mainland Affairs Council," Ma said, referring to Taiwan's top China policy decision-making body.Beijing unilaterally called off rapprochement talks in 1995 to protest the controversial US visit by the island's then president Lee Teng-hui, claiming it was part of his efforts to promote independence.

Siew said "no timetable" had been set for the normalisation of trade and economic ties with China.A cautious Ma added: "As cross-strait ties did not become frosty overnight, and the icy mountain is big, it may take a long time to melt the ice."


Line breaks: rep¦li|cate

Definition of replicate in English:


Pronunciation: /ˈrɛplɪkeɪt 
1Make an exact copy of; reproduce:it might be impractical to replicate Eastern culturein the west
1.1(replicate itself) (Of genetic material or a livingorganismreproduce or give rise to a copy of itself:interleukin-16 prevents the virus from replicating itself
1.2Repeat (a scientific experiment or trial) to obtainconsistent result:these findings have been replicated by Metzger and Antes


Pronunciation: /ˈrɛplɪkət 
[ATTRIBUTIVE]Back to top  
1Of the nature of a copy:a replicate Earth
1.1Of the nature of a repetition of a scientificexperiment or trial:the variation of replicate measurements


Pronunciation: /ˈrɛplɪkət 
Back to top  
1close or exact copy; a replica:young reptiles should not be considered merely small replicates of adults
1.1A repeated experiment or trial:five replicates were performed per dilution
2Music tone one or more octaves above or below the given tone.


late Middle English (in the sense 'repeat'): from Latinreplicat-, from the verb replicare, from re- 'back, again' + plicare 'to fold'. The current senses date from the late 19th century.
resume (START AGAIN)

1 [I or T] If an activity resumes, or if you resume it, it starts again after a pause:
Normal services will be resumed in the spring.
[+ ing form of verb] He stopped to take a sip of water and then resumed speaking.
The talks are due to resume today.

2 [T] If you resume a place or position which you have left for a period of time, you return to it:
to resume your post/job
Please resume your seats, as the performance will continue in two minutes.

noun [S or U] FORMAL
The president called for an immediate ceasefire and a resumption of negotiations between the two sides.

fore·shad·ow (fôr-shăd'ō, fōr-) pronunciation
tr.v., -owed, -ow·ing, -ows.
To present an indication or a suggestion of beforehand; presage.

foreshadower fore·shad'ow·er n.


━━ v. 常態[正常]にする; 標準に一致させる; 【コンピュータ】正規化する; (国交などが)正常化する.
nor・mal・i・za・tion n. 正常化; 【コンピュータ】正規化.
nor・mal・iz・ing n. 【冶】焼ならし.
normalized device coordinates 【コンピュータ】正規化装置座標.


  • レベル:最重要
  • 発音記号[píəriəd]

(1) (生涯・歴史などの)期間, 時期;時代. ⇒EPOCH 1
the happiest period of one's life
the period of Queen Victoria
a period of revolution
a transition period
live in a period where ...
(2) ((the 〜))現代, 当世;(問題とする)その時代
the greatest poet of the period
2 (ある一定の)時間, 年月;(ある現象・動作の)一期間, 周期
for a [the] period of five years [=for a five year period]
for a long [a short] period
the periods of ebb and flow
for a period of time
3 《教育》授業時間, 時限
the first period
a class period of fifty minutes
4 (試合の前半・後半などの)一区切り, ピリオド.
5 ((米))ピリオド, 終止符(((英))full stop);省略点(.);(文の)終結, (文末の)休止.
6 《修辞学》
(1) 総合文:数節からなり終止符で完結する文.
(2)periodic sentence.
(3) ((〜s))美辞, 美文.
(1) 《医学》期間;周期
the incubation period
(2) ((しばしばone's〜))月経(期)(monthly period)
having one's period [=be on one's period]
(3) ((俗))月経閉止.
8 《地質学》紀
the Jurassic period
ジュラ紀. ⇒ERA[名]5, EPOCH[名]5
9 《数学》(循環小数の)周期.
10 《天文・物理学》周期
a period of rotationrevolution
11 《音楽》楽節, 楽段.
12 終わり
come to a period
put a period toon] ...
━━[形]((限定))ある時代(特有)の, ある時代を表す[まねた]〈家具・服装・建築など〉
a period chair
a period novel
period clothing
━━[間]((米話))((文のあとに置いて))終わり, 以上;もはや多言[議論]の要なし.
[中ラテン語←ギリシャ語períodos (peri-回って+odos途(みち)=ひと回りの途→回路, 周期)]

 In the historically informed performance movement, musicians perform classical music using restored or replicated versions of the instruments for which it was originally written. Often performances by such musicians are said to be "on authentic instruments".