2013年3月31日 星期日

friar, monk, oblate, Oxford Movement, theology

在 Aquinas (1225- ) 時代 他要去當遊方的 friar, 卻遭到 家人拘留 因為 他們要他當 monk 較有面子.....

friar :會士;修士:托缽的會士,多指方濟、道明、加爾默羅等會會士。
friary :會院;托缽會修院:多指方濟、道明、加爾默羅及思定等會會院。
monk :隱修士: (1) 度隱修、祈禱、補贖、遵守三聖願生活的人士,包括本篤會、熙篤會等會士。 (2) 僧侶;和尚(佛):系借用此字,實際上二者之生活方式並不相同。

Oxford Movement :牛津復興運動:英國眾多國教教士于 1833 年在牛津大學所提倡之運動,主張恢復宗徒傳授和聖事的聖寵功效。透過該運動有多人改宗天主教,其中包括著名之紐曼樞機 John Henry Newman 1801-1890 )。而英國天主教亦受其影響。
(1833 – 45) Movement within the Church of England that aimed to emphasize the church's Catholic inheritance as a source of legitimacy and deeper spirituality. Its main intent was to defend the Church of England as a divine institution against the threats of liberal theology, rationalism, and government interference. Though some in the movement (notably John Henry Newman and Henry E. Manning) ended up converting to Catholicism, most did not. Their concern for a higher standard of worship influenced not only the Church of England but also other British Protestant sects. The movement was also instrumental in the establishment of Anglican monasteries and convents.

Oblate of Mary Immaculate :無玷聖母獻主會:為法國馬賽主教馬則諾( Charles Joseph de Mazenod )在 1816 年所創立,以對貧苦人傳教為宗旨。該會東方傳教地區有錫蘭、菲律賓、寮國、日本、香港等地。簡稱 O.M.I.

oblate (1) 獻身會士:為了精神的嚮往而加入某一修會,如加入撒勒爵獻身會( O.S.F.S. )。 (2) 獻身者;獻身人士:即住于修會中,遵守修會規則,而非正式入會的信友。 (3) 獻身兒童:指父母將幼童獻于本篤會度會士生活者。 (4) 奉獻物:特指彌撒中餅酒等奉獻。
oblation :奉獻;獻祭;捐獻: (1) 奉獻行為。 (2) 奉獻物。
(ŏb'lāt', ŏ-blāt') pronunciation
  1. Having the shape of a spheroid generated by rotating an ellipse about its shorter axis.偏球の(⇔prolate)
  2. Having an equatorial diameter greater than the distance between poles; compressed along or flattened at the poles: Planet Earth is an oblate solid.
[Probably New Latin oblātus : Latin ob-, toward; see ob- + Latin (prō)lātus; see prolate.]
oblately ob'late'ly adv.
oblateness ob'late'ness n.

ob·late2 (ŏb'lāt') pronunciation
  1. A layperson dedicated to religious life.
  2. Oblate Roman Catholic Church. A member of one of various religious communities for men or women.
[Medieval Latin oblātus, from Latin, past participle of offerre, to offer. See offer.]


Dr. of Sacred Theology

レベル:社会人必須発音記号[θiɑ'lədʒi | -ɔ'l-]
1 [U](特にキリスト教の)神学.
2 [U][C]神学理論[体系]
Thomist theology

retold, ascetic, observe, relief worker, feasts and famines, Passover, Talmudic

A Midsummer Night's Dream

7/15馬克白 Macbeth
The Taming of The Shrew

Much Ado About Nothing


Shakespears retold
MY life has turned Talmudic. A friend, aware of my religious upbringing, talked me into doing a new translation of the Haggadah — the book from which the story of Exodus is retold in Jewish households, read aloud at the Passover dinners taking place tonight.

It took a lot of convincing; I’ve been — for a long time — proudly and radically secular. But, as with the rest of my deeply observant family, once I’m committed to an undertaking, it’s zealousness or bust. “Born to Be Ascetic” is the tattoo my mother sports across her back...or the one she would, were she the tattooing kind.

Farming's Sudden
Feasts and Famines

As grain prices rise and fall and perhaps rise again, growers struggle to navigate a new age of volatility and high costs.

More Tragedy Amid China's Mourning
As China observed three minutes of silence to mourn the country's tens of thousands of earthquake victims, more than 200 relief workers were reported buried in a mudslide in Sichuan province.


[動](他)1 ((形式))[III[名]/that節]…を見る, 〈…ということに〉気づく;[V[名]do/[名]doing]〈人が〉(…するのを)見守る;[V[名](to be)[名][[形...
[名]1 観察者, 観測者;監視者;《軍事》航空偵察員, 機上偵察員.2 (法律・慣習などの)遵守者.3 (会議の)オブザーバー, 立会人.4 意見を述べる人, 評者.5 ((the O-))オ...
observe (OBEY) Show phoneticsverb [T] FORMAL to obey a law, rule or custom:People must observe the law. Nobody should be an exception.The old people in the village still observe the local traditions.Do you observe Passover?

Tokyo marks 15th anniversary of subway gas attack
Washington Post
Tokyo subway workers observed a moment of silence Saturday to mark the 15th anniversary of a fatal nerve gas attack, Japan's deadliest act of domestic ...

observe abstinence :守小齋;(吃)小齋:按教會規定,小齋日禁食熱血動物的肉,但魚、蛋及乳類食物不在此限(法典 1251 )。
observe fast :守大齋;節食;(吃)大齋:按教會規定,大齋日只能飽食一餐,其他兩餐可進少量食物(法典 1252 )。
observe the holy days :守瞻禮日;過宗教節日:指按照教會的規定,善度宗教節日;譬如當天應該參加彌撒、禁止勞役(法典 1246-1247 )。
relief (HELP) Show phonetics noun [C or U]food, money or services which provide help for people in need:an international relief operationrelief agencies/suppliesPop stars have raised millions of pounds for famine relief in Africa.
relieve Show phoneticsverb [T] 1 to provide relief for a bad situation or for people in need:emergency food aid to help relieve the famine2 to take the place of someone and continue doing their job or duties:I'm on duty until 2 p.m. and then Peter is coming to relieve me.
3 FORMAL to free a place that has been surrounded by an enemy army by military force:An armoured battalion was sent to relieve the besieged town.
noun [C or U]
when there is not enough food for a great number of people, causing illness and death, or a particular period when this happens:
Another crop failure could result in widespread famine.
There were reports of refugees dying of famine.
Thousands of people emigrated during the Irish potato famine of 1845-46.

Passover Show phonetics
noun [C or U] (ALSO Pesach)
a Jewish celebration in March or April every year to remember the escape of the Jews from Egypt

the Talmud PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
noun [S]
the collection of ancient Jewish laws and tradition for religious and social matters

Talmudic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics

ascetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
avoiding physical pleasures and living a simple life, often for religious reasons:
They live a very ascetic life.

ascetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
noun [C]
He lived as an ascetic.