2017年2月8日 星期三

survivor, survival, survival rates, (still) going strong


He's had it 17 years! 💪

Reuters 2016.2.8
Rescuers pulled two survivors from the rubble of a Taiwan apartment block on Monday more than 48 hours after it was toppled by an earthquake, but the mayor of the southern city of Tainan warned the death toll was likely to exceed 100. Read the latest:http://reut.rs/20QEe0e
REUT.RS|由 BY FAITH HUNG AND YIMOU LEE 上傳



sur・vi・val




━━ n. 生き残ること; 生存(者); 残存(物); 遺物, 遺風.
sur・viv・al・ism n. 生存主義 ((備えをして大災害でも生き残ろうとする)).
sur・viv・al・ist n.
survival kit 救命袋, 非常用品一式.
survival of the fittest 【生物】(the ~) 適者生存.


(still) going strong

to continue to be successful, healthy, or working well Our club was founded over 100 years ago, and it's still goingstrong.

Cancer centers release survival rates ( Japan)

日本走出第一步 有些醫院的病人末期的比率多 所以其5年"預後率"看來比較差
有許多因素讓公布的數據無法反映所謂"醫療品質"


Health care

You get what you pay for

Jul 21st 2008
From Economist.com

Comparing cancer survival rates, by country


A STUDY in a journal, the Lancet Oncology, compares cancer survival rates across five continents for the first time. Afer adjusting country data, from the 1990s, for differences in both age and death rates in the general population, Americans were found to have the best chance of survival for two of the five cancers that the reasearchers considered: breast cancer in women and prostate cancer. (Cuba had impressive survival rates, but these were probably over-estimated, say researchers). Europe lags behind America, with wide differences in survival rates, ranging from 10% for breast cancer to 34% for prostate cancer. Money appears to be an important factor: America spends a greater proportion of national income on health than the other countries.
SPL

Readers' comments

In biostatistics, survival rate is a part of the survival analysis, indicating the percentage of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. Survival rates are important for prognosis, for example if a type of cancer has a good or bad prognosis can be determined from its survival rate.
Patients with a certain disease can die directly from that disease, or from an unrelated cause such as a car accident. When the precise cause of death is not specified, this is called the overall survival rate or observed survival rate. Doctor's often use mean overall survival rates to estimate the patient's prognosis. This is often expressed over standard time periods, like one, five and ten years. For example, prostate cancer has a much higher one year overall survival rate than pancreatic cancer, and thus has a better prognosis.
When more interested in how survival is affected by the disease, there is also the net survival rate that filters out the effect of mortality from other causes than from the disease. The two main ways to calculate net survival are relative survival and cause specific survival or disease specific survival.
Relative survival is calculated by dividing the overall survival after diagnosis of a disease by the survival as observed in a similar population that was not diagnosed with that disease. A similar population is composed by making at least age and gender similar as in the population diagnosed with the disease.
Cause specific survival is calculated by treating deaths from other causes than the disease as withdrawals from the population that don't lower survival, comparable to patients who are not observed any longer, e.g. due to reaching the end of the study period.
Relative survival has the advantage that it does not depend on accuracy of the reported cause of death, cause specific survival has the advantage that it does not depend on the ability to find a similar population of people without the disease.

survive
verb
1 [I or T] to continue to live or exist, especially after coming close to dying or being destroyed or after being in a difficult or threatening situation:
The baby was born with a heart problem and only survived for a few hours.
These plants cannot survive in very cold conditions.
None of Shakespeare's plays survives in its original manuscript form.
The family are struggling to survive on very little money.
The front passengers were lucky to survive the accident.
The prime minister succeeded in surviving the challenge to his authority.
"How are you?" "Oh, (I'm) surviving (= life is satisfactory, but not very good)."

2 [T] to continue to live after someone, especially a member of your family, has died:
He is survived by his wife and four children.

survivable 
adjective FORMAL
(of an accident or injury) very serious but not causing death

survival
noun
1 [U] when a person, organization, etc. continues to live or exist:
The doctors told my wife I had a 50/50 chance of survival.
His main concern is to ensure his own political survival.
England are fighting for survival (= trying not to be defeated) in the match.

2 [C] something that has continued to exist from a previous time:
Most of these traditions are survivals from earlier times.

survival 
adjective
We all have a strong survival instinct.
The survival rate for people who have this form of cancer is now more than 90%.

surviving
adjective [before noun]
continuing to live or exist:
The rhinoceros is one of the world's oldest surviving species.
Her estate was divided between her three surviving children (= those who continued to live after her death).

survivor
noun [C]
1 a person who continues to live, despite nearly dying:
He was the sole (= only) survivor of the plane crash.
She's a cancer survivor/a survivor of cancer.

2 a person who is able to continue living their life successfully despite experiencing difficulties:
He's one of life's survivors.

3 US A person's survivors are the members of his or her family who continue to live after he or she has died.

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