2016年5月10日 星期二

premise, premises, nuanced, FTTP

When Management by Objectives was first introduced by Peter Drucker, the premise was to have employees establish their own goals and then discuss ...

During what Dikotter calls “The Black Years” from 1968 to 1971, the Cultural Revolution moved to the countryside, as former Red Guards were rusticated by the millions to “learn from” the peasants and prepare for war with the Soviet Union along the border. Dikotter describes the experience as an unremittingly terrible time of suffering, hunger, rape and abuse. Yet the rustification movement has produced hundreds of Chinese-language memoirs, many of which testify that for some young people, the time in the country­side was more nuanced or even bittersweet than he indicates. The rusticated youth, arguably, helped China to break with its Maoist past, for they later became known as the “awakened generation” and the “thoughtful generation” as they gradually inherited the leadership of the country. Their experiences in the countryside gave them the chance to re-evaluate the very premises of the revolution.

在馮客稱之為「黑色年代」的1968年至1971年間,隨着數百萬原紅衛兵上山下鄉接受農民的「再教育」,同時為在邊境與蘇聯打仗做好準備,文革轉移到了鄉下。馮客把這個階段描述為,經歷了持續不斷的痛苦、飢餓、強姦和虐待。不過,上山下鄉運動產生了數百部中文的回憶錄,其中有許多表明,對於一些年輕人來說,那段農村經歷比馮客的描述要複雜得多,甚至是苦樂參半的。可以說,參加過上山下鄉的青年人幫助中國與過去的毛澤東時代決裂,因為隨着他們逐漸繼承了國家的領導權,這些人後來被稱為「覺醒的一代」和「思考的一代」。他們在農村的經歷,為重新評估文革前提這個根本問題提供了機會。

--書評
馮客(Frank Dikötter)著《文化大革命:一部人民的歷史,1962-1976(The Cultural Revolution: A People』s History, 1962-1976)。
http://cn.nytimes.com/china/20160509/c09shapiro/zh-hant/

HC譯評:黑體字
more nuanced 更微妙,非"更複雜"
the very premises of the revolution 文革的理論基礎 ,非"前提這個根本問題"。

premise Show phonetics
noun [C]
an idea or theory on which a statement or action is based:
[+ that] They had started with the premise that all men are created equal.
The research project is based on the premise stated earlier.

premise Show phonetics
verb [T] FORMAL
to base a theory, argument, etc. on an idea, thought, or belief:
He premised his argument on several incorrect assumptions.



E Corporation offers a broad portfolio of compound semiconductor- based products for the broadband, fiber optic, satellite and solar power markets. E's Fiber Optic segment offers optical components, subsystems and systems for high speed data and telecommunications networks, cable television (CATV) and fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP).

Whispering Pines Bed and Breakfast in Dellroy, Ohio, where rooms are outfitted in antique furnishings, recently started offering a Guys Getaway package that includes $10 coupons for a nearby clay pigeon shooting range, boat rentals and dinner at a local restaurant. And the six-room Forty Putney Road in Brattleboro, Vt., has its own pub on the premises.

prem·ise (prĕm'ĭspronunciation

n. also prem·iss (prĕm'ĭs)
  1. A proposition upon which an argument is based or from which a conclusion is drawn.
  2. Logic.
    1. One of the propositions in a deductive argument.
    2. Either the major or the minor proposition of a syllogism, from which the conclusion is drawn.
  3. premises Law. The preliminary or explanatory statements or facts of a document, as in a deed.
  4. premises
    1. Land and the buildings on it.
    2. A building or part of a building.

v.-ised-is·ing-is·esv.tr.
  1. To state in advance as an introduction or explanation.
  2. To state or assume as a proposition in an argument.
v.intr.
To make a premise.

[Middle English premisse, from Old French, from Medieval Latin praemissa (propositiō), (the proposition) put before, premise, from Latin, feminine past participle of praemittere, to set in front : prae-, pre- + mittere, to send.]

WORD HISTORY Why do we call a single building the premises? To answer this question, we must go back to the Middle Ages. But first, let it be noted that premises comes from the past participle praemissa, which is both a feminine singular and a neuter plural form of the Latin verb praemittere, "to send in advance, utter by way of preface, place in front, prefix." In Medieval Latin the feminine form praemissa was used as a term in logic, for which we still use the term premise descended from the Medieval Latin word (first recorded in a work composed before 1380). Medieval Latin praemissa in the plural meant "things mentioned before" and was used in legal documents, almost always in the plural, a use that was followed in Old French and Middle English, both of which borrowed the word from Latin. A more specific legal sense in Middle English, "that property, collectively, which is specified in the beginning of a legal document and which is conveyed, as by grant," was also always in the plural in Middle English and later Modern English. And so it remained when this sense was extended to mean "a house or building with its grounds or appurtenances," a usage first recorded before 1730.


premises 
plural noun
the land and buildings owned by someone, especially by a company or organization:
The company is relocating to new premises.
There is no smoking allowed anywhere on school premises.
The ice cream is made on the premises (= in the building where it is sold).
The security guards escorted the protesters off (= away from) the premises.

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