2016年10月15日 星期六

alternate, alternative, atrocity, words and valences

16.02. - Cohousing Community Grows Stronger in France
Tired of living alone or only seeing your neighbors for seconds in the
hall? For those who like to share, a new French trend in alternative
living may be the answer.
The DW-WORLD Article
http://newsletter.dw-world.de/re?l=ew08biI44va89pI6





'Valence', as used in psychology, especially in discussing emotions, means the intrinsic attractiveness (positive valence) or aversiveness (negative valence) of an event, object, or situation[1] However, the term is also used to characterize and categorize specific emotions. For example, the emotions popularly referred to as "negative", such as anger and fear, have "negative valence". Joy has "positive valence". Positively valenced emotions are evoked by positively valenced events, objects, or situations. The term is also used about the hedonic tone of feelingsaffect, certain behaviors (for example, approach and avoidance), goal-attainment or -non-attainment, and conformity with or violation of normsAmbivalence can be viewed as conflict between positive and negative valence-carriers.[citation needed]

History of Usage

The term entered English usage in psychology with the translation from German in 1935 of works of Kurt Lewin. Ambivalence has a longer history.[citation needed]

Criterion for Emotion

Valence is one criterion used in some definitions of emotion. The possible absence of valence is cited as a reason to exclude surprise, viewed as the startle reaction, from the list of emotions, though some would include it.

Measurement

Valence could be assigned a number and treated as if it were measured, but the validity of a measurement based on a subjective report is questionable. Measurement based on observations of facial expressions, using FACS, and microexpressions (See Ekman.) or on modern functional brain imaging may overcome this objection.




2008
Stopping genocide. Wording on this was more concrete that other issues: nations agreed on a collective responsibility to protect civilians facing genocide and similar atrocities. Governments can no longer use sovereignty and non-intervention norms as excuses to avoid having to act to protect civilians from mass killings.
http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Poverty/unworldsummit2005.asp

atrocity
noun [C or U] ━━ n. 極悪; ひどさ; 残虐行為.
when someone does something extremely violent and shocking:
They're on trial for committing atrocities against the civilian population.
These people are guilty of acts of great atrocity (= cruelty).

2005年联合国峰会曾经提出了一个全新的国际法概念--“保护责任”,也就是说各国政府有义务保护本国公民不受种族屠杀和战争罪行的伤害。2007年秋 季,联合国秘书长潘基文任命美国著名政治学者爱德华-卢克担任特别顾问,主持这一概念的具体实施工作。卢克不久前访问德国,而德国政府也表示将对他的工作 予以支持。

爱德华.卢克教授是一个很有耐心,循循善诱的人。而卢克教授目前所承担的任务就如同希腊神话中的西西弗斯苦役一 般无穷无尽,正需要他这样的人格特质。卢克教授是联合国秘书长潘基文的特别顾问,他的使命是让联合国在处理严重侵犯人权事件时更具协调能力。为此,卢克提 出了"保护义务"的概念,并在2005年联合国大会上得到通过。对他而言,这是一个历史性的决定。根据这个概念,每个国家都有义务保护国民免受种族屠杀, 战争罪行的伤害。卢克对德国之声说:"除此之外,还有很重要的一点是,国际社会自身也有责任,帮助各个国家实现自己对于国民的保护义务。这是一个新的元 素。"

在发生严重侵犯人权事件的时候,这一行动可以超越国家主权的限制。这是国际法发展中非常具有争议的一点。"我们估计,很少会出现军事干预的情况,但是并不排除这种可能性。联合国宪章已经确定了相应的法律框架。这样就可以用联合国集体反应取代军事强国的单边行动。"

爱德华.卢克顺便提到,"保护义务"这个概念起源于非洲。2000年制定的非洲联盟基本文件确定了这一具有决定性的想 法,发生严重侵犯人权事件时,邻国不能袖手旁观,必须介入。联合国秘书长潘基文大力倡导实现"保护义务",但并不是所有成员国都对此表示欢迎。卢克说:" 是的,针对这个概念,甚至我作为秘书长特别顾问的职位确实存在争议。但是我们工作的越多,就有越多的联合国成员国认可'保护义务'。我认为,那些持反对意 见的国家不愿意认可这个概念,是因为他们发现这个概念非常具有效力。对我而言,这种反对意见的存在恰恰证明了'保护义务'所蕴含的力量。"

为了能够具体运用这种力量,爱德华.卢克和他唯一的一名同事、来自澳大利亚的国际法女学者,正在对庞大的联合国组织进行大规模的"盘点"工作。以便了解,那些部门的工作与防止种族屠杀,战争等反人类罪行有关。

此后卢克将提出一份行动纲领。他开玩笑说,这份文件不会十全十美,因为"完美"的东西在联合国里根本就不可能存在。但是 肯尼亚最近的例子也显示了,联合国在面对危机情况时也能做出快速有效的反应。"当然,这个概念不可能在一两年时间里改变世界。但是在接下来的十几年里,这 个概念会深入人心,然后人们会越来越期待各个国家和国际机构实现'保护义务'。"


著名的政治学者卢克教授花了很多时间来向人们阐述和推广"保护义务"的概念。他表示,幸好这是一个普世概念,所以可以每 次都用同样的话来进行解释。德国政府已经表示,将对卢克的工作予以支持。对联合国了如指掌的卢克很明白,不能期望国际法领域会出现什么奇迹。只要联合国内 外能有一半的人能够认识到,在反对严重侵犯人权方面能够做的更多,就已经让卢克心满意足了。

alternative Show phonetics
noun [C]
something that is different from something else, especially from what is usual, and offering the possibility of choice:
an alternative to coffee
There must be an alternative to people sleeping on the streets.
I'm afraid I have no alternative but to ask you to leave (= that is what I have to do).

alternative
adjective
1 (US ALSO alternate) An alternative plan or method is one that you can use if you do not want to use another one:
The opposition parties have so far failed to set out an alternative strategy.
An alternative venue for the concert is being sought.

2 describes things that are considered to be unusual and which tend to have a small but enthusiastic group of people who support them:
alternative comedy

alternatively Show phonetics
adverb
used to suggest another possibility:
We could go to the Indian restaurant, or alternatively, we could try that new Italian place.



ADJECTIVE

1[ATTRIBUTIVE] (Of one or more things) available as another possibility or choice:the various alternative methods for resolving disputes
1.1(Of two things) mutually exclusive:the facts fit two alternative scenarios
2Relating to activities that depart from or challenge traditional norms:an alternative lifestyle

NOUN

One of two or more available possibilities:audio cassettes are an interesting alternative to readingshe had no alternative but to break the law

Usage

Some traditionalists maintain that you can only have a maximum of two alternatives, because the word alternative comes from Latin alter ‘other (of two)’) and that uses where there are more than two alternatives are wrong. Such uses are, however, normal in modern standard English. See also alternate (usage).

Origin

Mid 16th century (in the sense 'alternating, alternate'): from French alternatif-ive or medieval Latin alternativus, from Latin alternare 'interchange' (see alternate).


這筆記是一些困惑的搜索結果。
*****
alternative
adj. - 兩者擇一的, 替代的, 非此即彼的, 供選擇的
n. - 選擇, 二擇一, 選擇的自由, 供選擇的東西
idioms:
• alternative arrangement 交錯排列, 替代安排, 替代方案
• alternative comedy 非傳統的喜劇
• alternative energy 非傳統能源
• alternative medicine 替代藥品, 非現代西方醫學傳統的醫藥
日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 二者択一, 選択, 選べるもの, 代わりになるもの, 選択肢
adj. - どちらかの, 代わりの, 二者択一の
idioms:
• alternative arrangement 代案
• alternative comedy 熱狂的な支持者を持つ小演劇
• alternative energy 新エネルギー
• alternative medicine 代替医療
-----

adj.
1. Allowing or necessitating a choice between two or more things.
2.
a. Existing outside traditional or established institutions or systems: an alternative lifestyle.
b. Espousing or reflecting values that are different from those of the establishment or mainstream: an alternative newspaper; alternative greeting cards.
3. Usage Problem. Substitute or different; other.
alternatively al•ter'na•tive•ly adv.


USAGE NOTE Some traditionalists hold that alternative should be used only in situations where the number of choices involved is exactly two, because of the word's historical relation to Latin alter, “the other of two.” Despite the word's longstanding use to mean “one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen” and the acceptance of this usage by many language critics, a substantial portion of the Usage Panel adheres to the traditional view, with only 49 percent accepting the sentence Of the three alternatives, the first is the least distasteful. • Alternative is also sometimes used to refer to a variant or substitute in cases where there is no element of choice involved, as in We will do our best to secure alternative employment for employees displaced by the closing of the factory. This sentence is unacceptable to 60 percent of the Usage Panel. • Alternative should not be confused with alternate. Correct usage requires The class will meet on alternate (not alternative) Tuesdays.

***** alternate
adj. (-nĭt)
1. Happening or following in turns; succeeding each other continuously: alternate seasons of the year. See Usage Note at alternative. 如上文
2. Designating or relating to every other one of a series: alternate lines.
3. Serving or used in place of another; substitute: an alternate plan.
4. Botany.
a. Arranged singly at each node, as leaves or buds on different sides of a stem.
b. Arranged regularly between other parts, as stamens between petals.

例:

架空歷史小說,即描述「並非真實發生的虛構歷史」的小說,包括歷史背景及未來。小說的最大不同在於故事通常會發生在一個作者以某些創作前提(如娛樂性、特定背景等)為本所虛構的或被改編的歷史或未來,一個由作者隨意設定的世界。
----
架空戦記(かくうせんき)は、仮想戦記(かそうせんき)もしくはIF戦記(いふせんき)、バーチャル戦記などとも呼ばれる小説、漫画等の戦記の一ジャンルである。
---
Alternate history or alternative history[1] is a subgenre of speculative fiction (or some would say of science fiction) that is set in a world in which history has diverged from history as it is generally known. Alternate history literature asks the question, "What if history had developed differently?" Most works in this genre are based in real historical events, yet feature social, geopolitical, or industrial circumstances that developed differently than our own.
----
In French, alternate history novels are called uchronie. This neologism is based on the word utopia (a place that doesn't exist) and the Greek for time, chronos. An uchronie, then, is defined as a time that doesn't exist. Another occasionally-used term for the genre is "allohistory" (lit. "other history").[1]

***alternate world

Kings of cult and pop

Pierre et Gilles create dreamy portraits that transport their subjects - as well as the viewers - into an alternate world where camp, pop, burlesque, religion, and eroticism mingle in perfect harmony. Creating the sets themselves, and with Pierre as photographer and Gilles as painter/elaborator, they create one-of-a-kind artworks of an unmistakably original style. A host of stars has passed before their lens, such as Iggy Pop, Madonna, Marc Almond, Nina Hagen, Catherine Deneuve, Laetitia Casta, Marilyn Manson, Mireille Mathieu... though many of their portraits also feature unknowns.


****
One of the entries in Squire's volume was Winston Churchill's "If Lee Had Not Won the Battle of Gettysburg"[2], written from the viewpoint of a historian in a world where the Confederacy had won the American Civil War, considering what would have happened if the North had been victorious (in other words, a character from an alternate world imagining a world more like the real one we live in, although not necessarily getting all the details right).

沒有留言: