2018年3月4日 星期日

acorn, eggcorn, burnout, chaise lounge, corporate flame-outs is accelerating

Cases of "burnout" among busy professionals are on the rise. A psychoanalyst tells The Economist’s 1843 magazine how he helps his patients cope with the pressures of modern life
Similar afflictions have been recorded throughout human history. So what is it about the 21st century that has turned burnout into an epidemic? From The Economist’s 1843 magazine

 Wikipedia article "Eggcorn".  中文呢...

In linguistics, an eggcorn is an idiosyncratic substitution of a word or phrase for a word or words that sound similar or identical in the speaker's dialect (sometimes called oronyms). The new phrase introduces a meaning that is different from the original, but plausible in the same context, such as "old-timers' disease" for "Alzheimer's disease".[1] This is as opposed to a malapropism, where the substitution creates a nonsensical phrase. Classical malapropisms generally derive their comic effect from the fault of the user, while eggcorns are errors that exhibit creativity or logic.[2] Eggcorns often involve replacing an unfamiliar, archaic, or obscure word with a more common or modern word ("baited breath" for "bated breath").[3]
The term eggcorn was coined by a professor of linguistics, Geoffrey Pullum, in September 2003, in response to an article by Mark Liberman on the website Language Log, a blog for linguists.[4] Liberman discussed the case of a woman who substitutes the phrase egg corn for the word acorn, arguing that the precise phenomenon lacked a name; Pullum suggested using "eggcorn" itself. The phenomenon is very similar to the form of wordplay known as the pun, except that, by definition, the speaker (or writer) intends the pun to have some effect on the recipient, whereas one who speaks or writes an eggcorn is unaware of the mistake.

Chaise lounge
A form of sofa with a backrest at one end only.
chaise lounge'Chaise lounge' appears to be a very early example of an eggcorn, dating from long before eggcorns were given a name.
[Note: eggcorns are words or phrases which have been coined mistakenly, often due to an incorrect guess as to how a word is spelled, but one which makes some kind of sense. For example, Old-Timer's Disease for Alzheimer's Disease and daring-do for derring-do.]
'Chaise lounge', also sometimes spelled 'chase lounge', began life as such a linguistic mistake and has survived because it does make intuitive sense. The piece of furniture in question is properly called a 'chaise longue'. The name is of French origin, of course, and has been known there since the 18th century, translating into English simply as 'long chair' - which is just what it is. The understandability of the misspelling of 'longue' as 'lounge' is that lounging is what one does on these sofas and the supposed translation of 'lounging chair' makes perfect sense.
chaise loungeThe spelling and pronunciation as 'chaise lounge' is largely limited to America. It is so well-established there that it is far too late to turn back the clock - only the most foolhardy of visitors to the USA would attempt to flag it as a mistake. The confusion for those outside America is added to by the fact that those items of garden or poolside furniture which are known in most other English-speaking countries as a 'sun-loungers', are also often called 'chaise lounges' in the USA.
Those English-speakers from the Mother Country who look down on this as a typical mangling of the language by those uncultured Yanks might be dismayed to find that the earliest known citation of the 'chaise lounge' spelling comes from no less a bastion of 'proper' English than The Times newspaper. The January 16th 1807 edition included an advert for An Assemblage of truly elegant furniture, fitted up in the most modern style, and this includes the offer of "sofas, chaise lounge, loo tables" etc. The earliest citation that I can find from America, and which appears to refer to a 'sun-lounger', is in the 4th January 1875 edition of The Newport Daily News:
"A real rattan chaise lounge, such as is made at Singapore."

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Obama Voices Optimism on the Economy corporate flame-outs is accelerating

President Obama and his team sounded cautiously optimistic about the economy as part of an accelerating campaign to project confidence that the nation can pull out of the downturn.

Mervyn's and the parent company of Bennigan's both filed for bankruptcy protection yesterday, providing more evidence that the pace of corporate flame-outs is accelerating.

flame-out 通常 完全失敗

flame-out pronunciation

IN BRIEF: n. - A complete or conspicuous failure; The failure of a jet engine caused by an interruption of the fuel supply or by faulty combustion.

Fatigue experienced by athletes at the end of a hard season. Flame-out is a form of physical burnout from which an athlete usually recovers quickly with a break or reduction in exercise.



mass noun
  • 1The reduction of a fuel or substance to nothing through use or combustion.
  • 2The failure of an electrical device or component through overheating.
    with modifier ‘an anti-stall mechanism prevents motor burnout’
  • 3Physical or mental collapse caused by overwork or stress.
    ‘high levels of professionalism which may result in burnout’
    1. 3.1US informal count noun A dropout or drug abuser.
  • 4as modifier Denoting fabric whose pattern is produced by using chemicals to burn away areas of the pile or the fabric itself.
    ‘burnout velvet’
    ‘a long-sleeved jersey burnout top’
accelerate (HAPPEN FASTER) Show phonetics
verb [I or T]
to happen or make something happen sooner or faster:
Inflation is likely to accelerate this year, adding further upward pressure on interest rates.
They use special chemicals to accelerate the growth of crops.

acceleration Show phonetics
noun [S or U]

The acceleration in the decline of manufacturing industry is being blamed on the high value of sterling.


Pronunciation: /ˈɛgkɔːn/

Definition of eggcorn


  • a word or phrase that results from a mishearing or misinterpretation of another, an element of the original being substituted for one which sounds very similar (e.g. tow the line instead of toe the line).


early 21st century: with reference to a misinterpretation of acorn


Pronunciation: /ˈeɪkɔːn/

Definition of acorn

  • the fruit of the oak, a smooth oval nut in a rough cup-like base.


Old English æcern, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch aker, also to acre, later associated with oak and corn1


a • corn
acorns (複数形)
1 ドングリ:ナラ・カシなどの果実. ⇒OAK 1
2 (家具などの)ドングリ状の頂華[取っ手].
[古英語æcern(野や森の果実). 北ヨーロッパ・英国の最も普通の森の果実はドングリであった]


chaises (複数形)
1 軽装二輪[四輪]馬車(shay).
3 寝いす, 長いす.

chaise longue

(複 chaises longues)寝いす, 長いす:リクライニング式. ▼chaise lounge 〔láund〕 は通俗語源による改変.