2016年12月4日 星期日

easement, a ha-ha (wall), greener pastures

BREAKING: In a true victory for Standing Rock Sioux tribe, the Army Corps of Engineers says it will not approve an easement for the planned route of the Dakota pipeline.

1. on Page 260:
"... for more prestigious institutions. In the field of computing, particularly the subfields of programming and simulation, there were no greener pastures than those of Schenley Park. ..."

noun [C or U]
grass or similar plants suitable for animals such as cows and sheep to eat, or an area of land covered in this:
The sheep were grazing on the lush green pastures.
Some fields are planted with crops for several years, and then returned to pasture for the cattle.

n. - 牧場, 牧草, 草地
v. tr. - 放牧
v. intr. - 吃草
  • greener pastures 好地方, 更好的職位
  • pastures new 好地方, 更好的職位
  • put out to pasture 放牧
put sb out to pasture INFORMAL
to stop someone working in their job because they are too old to be useful

n. - 牧草地, 放牧場, 牧草
v. - 放牧する, 食べる
  • greener pastures 今より魅力的な場所
  • put out to pasture 引退させる, お払い箱にする

A few steps farther brought them out at the bottom of the
very walk they had been talking of; and standing back,
well shaded and sheltered, and looking over a ha-ha into
the park, was a comfortable-sized bench, on which they
all sat down.

He still reasoned with her, but in vain. She would
not calculate, she would not compare. She would only
smile and assert. The greatest degree of rational
consistency could not have been more engaging, and they
talked with mutual satisfaction. At last it was agreed
that they should endeavour to determine the dimensions
of the wood by walking a little more about it. They would
go to one end of it, in the line they were then in--
for there was a straight green walk along the bottom
by the side of the ha-ha--and perhaps turn a little way
in some other direction, if it seemed likely to assist them,
and be back in a few minutes. Fanny said she was rested,
and would have moved too, but this was not suffered.
Edmund urged her remaining where she was with an
earnestness which she could not resist, and she was left
on the bench to think with pleasure of her cousin's care,
but with great regret that she was not stronger.
She watched them till they had turned the corner,
and listened till all sound of them had ceased.

After sitting a little while Miss Crawford was up again.
"I must move," said she; "resting fatigues me.
I have looked across the ha-ha till I am weary. I must
go and look through that iron gate at the same view,
without being able to see it so well."

"Do you mean literally or figuratively? Literally,
I conclude. Yes, certainly, the sun shines, and the park
looks very cheerful. But unluckily that iron gate,
that ha-ha, give me a feeling of restraint and hardship.
'I cannot get out,' as the starling said." As she spoke,
and it was with expression, she walked to the gate:
he followed her. "Mr. Rushworth is so long fetching
this key!"

Fanny, feeling all this to be wrong, could not help
making an effort to prevent it. "You will hurt yourself,
Miss Bertram," she cried; "you will certainly hurt
yourself against those spikes; you will tear your gown;
you will be in danger of slipping into the ha-ha. You had
better not go."
Mansfield Park, by Austen

Alice from the UK HaHa's were introduced to the UK from France by Capability Brown. A HaHa is a boundary barrier that does not block the view. It was used to keep animals such as sheep and cattle out of the formal garden without loosing the view across the countryside. a HaHa was usually a 'semi-ditch' with the garden side a wall.
It was called a HaHa form people's comments once they were told the reason for it.
Using modern products such as perspex, it is possible to create the HaHa principle in a fence.
Yourgarden.com's Specialist - Marian Alice from the UK is right. Ha-Ha's belong to the elements of the landscape garden style of the 18 century. It was intend to have a seamless change of the lawn by the house and the landscape behind, so it looks like the whole surrounding belongs to the garden.
Ha-Ha's consist of a deep section with a wall in it to keep the cattle or wild out of the garden. For the construction of a Ha-Ha you have to dig a lot. It's depending of the size of the garden how long and deep your Ha-Ha is going to be. Do you have a big garden in a park landscape then the Ha-Ha must be about 1,80 m deep and the wall even 1,80 m high. The wall can made of concrete blocks and bricks or bricks with cobbles or other materials that look natural by the house. It can be useful to put drains so there's no standing water in your Ha-Ha.


Scarlett Thicket Farm early 1700s, fieldstone farm house with superb mill work, center hall and beautiful room proportions. A fabulous southern view overlooking haha wall and pastures. Additional stone farm manager's house and 5 stall stable. Land under conservation easement, providing for multiple home sites, with several tax parcels.

  1. 1.
    a right to cross or otherwise use someone else's land for a specified purpose.
  2. 2.
    the state or feeling of comfort or peace.
    "time brings easement"

Kirkleatham Hall - garden front
© Courtesy of Stewart Ramsdale
What's so funny about a ha-ha wall?

The purpose of the Grand Tour was to form an appreciation for classical art, and it would have had a profound effect on Cholmley. Certainly his library was stocked with landmark texts of the time, including Palladio's I Quattro Libri. With the material and cultural wealth Cholmley had now inherited, he set about modelling the estate in line with the classical revival taking place at country houses across the country.

Nature and the individual
The ha-ha wall dates from around 1715-20 and could have been designed by any one of a number of renowned architects and masons employed by Cholmley at the time. Hawksmoor, Gibbs, Chambers and even Vanbrugh could have been involved in its creation. The wall was part of a wider movement transforming the relationship between the individual and nature.

In his seminal essay On Modern Gardening, Horace Walpole described ha-ha walls as "the leading step" in the new style of landscaped gardens. Pre-dating the late 18th Century Romantic Movement, whose advocates celebrated nature in its crudest form, ha-ha walls were a definite step towards enjoying "all nature as a garden" (Walpole).

Social distinctions
The East Bastion at Kirkleatham Hall
© Copyright of English heritage - NMR
Ha-ha walls embodied the strict social distinctions of the 18th Century. Though the view was preserved from within the estate gardens, little thought was given to aesthetic appreciation for those on the far side of the wall. By the mid 19th Century this distinction is referred to in Trollope's Barchester Towers, "that for the quality on the esoteric or garden side of a certain deep ha-ha; and that for the non-quality on the exoteric or paddock side of the same".

Eroding the division between the house and its grounds also reaffirmed the central importance of land ownership to the landed gentry at a time, when the growth of the middle class threatened their very definition.

As the ha-ha wall at Kirkleatham falls into an increasingly ruinous state, the window it provides on the social landscape of the 18th Century becomes ever more endangered. And you thought there was little that could be said about a wall!

What's so funny about a ha-ha wall?

Artist: Felix Bennett