2016年4月16日 星期六

material, materialize, rear, sharer, overshare, crop up, protrude,sharecroppers, weathered, child-rearing

Last night was Tap Night for Yale’s secret societies, which now number in the dozens. Take our quiz and see if you can decide whether Red Mask, Arcturus, Raven, and 27 others are Yale societies or metal bands.
Can you keep a secret? Do you have Thursday and Sunday nights free? Can you perform secret handshakes and passwords with a straight face? So far so good, but the Yale senior society landscape has changed since the days…

It could be a very useful material.

Where's your Material, Girl?

Dubbed the 'lost nudes', the photos were taken 13 years before the…
A campaign has been launched in response to the Times newspaper voting the Ukip leader its Briton of the Year...

People are now voting for Nigel Farage as Rear of the Year


A Second Child? Many Couples in China Will Pass

A relaxing of the one-child policy will allow two children when only one parent is an only child, but the cost of child-rearing has given some couples pause.

We take a look at the worst of the recent scandals involving oversharing via e-mail and texts.

"If you get milk from an unscreened sharer, you put your child at risk. I hate to say this to an informal sharer, because they are trying to do good. But they are playing a game of Russian roulette."
KIM UPDEGROVE, president of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, on the risks of sharing breast milk.



What Makes People Overshare?29




Illegally Uploaded Movies Crop Up Again on YouTube

Walker Evans (1903-75) is known for the consummate lucidity of his images of sharecroppers and weathered Southern architecture.
沃克·埃文斯(Walker Evans, 1903–1975)最出名的是佃農和南方建築的斷壁殘垣,清晰的畫面展現出高絕的技藝。


(verb) Extend out or project in space.


jut, stick out, project


His huge bones seemed to protrude from his body; his elbows were so sharp that they appeared to jut out through the arms of his shabby coat.

on Page 65:
" ... Gaitskell, which suggested the centrist policies of the time). When unemployment again reared its head in 1959-60"

A Warming Planet Struggles to Feed Itself

As global warming puts stresses on farmers feeding a growing world population, financing to develop new crop varieties and new techniques has been slow to materialize.

A Phrase A Week
Crop up


To emerge or occur incidentally or unexpectedly.

OriginThe word crop has several meanings. As a noun it is a swelling on the body, or any rounded or swollen item, for example a bird's gullet, the seed head of a ripe plant or the the rear end of a horse. As a verb it means 'to cut the top or sides off' or 'to gather in' (as in cereal crops). A less well-known meaning is 'to protrude from the earth's surface'.
Crop upThe context of early printed examples of the term 'crop up' doesn't help us decipher whether that 'crop' is an allusion to the growth of crops or to the 'swollen' meaning. That is because the things that were first said to have 'cropped up' were rounded items which protruded from the ground, i.e. rocks.
The term 'crop up' has been used since at least the 17th century by miners, geologists etc. to refer to rocks that break the earth's surface - literally, outcrops. The Stuart nobleman Dud Dudley, in Metallum Martis, 1665, a record of mining in the English Black Country region, referred to the 'cropping up' of coal:
"The coles ascending, basseting, or as the colliers term it, cropping up even unto the superfices [surface] of the earth."
The later use of the term 'crop up' in its figurative 'emerge unexpectedly' meaning seems quite a natural progression. The Proceedings of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1832, include a citation that could easily be read as having a figurative rather than literal meaning, if it weren't for the geological context.
"Grey-wacke, and slaty limestone, conformably stratified, crop up above the ocean in the Booming isles to the north."
A more obvious figurative version appeared a few years later, in Benjamin Disraeli's Coningsby, or the new generation 1844:
"We shall have new men cropping up every session."
Crop marksCoincidentally, crops still feature in the language of geologists and archeologists, in the form of crop marks. These are the lines which are created by variations in the growth of plants caused by buried rocks or archeological remains. Although difficult to see from the ground, crop marks materialize quite clearly when viewed from the air. They could be said, both literally and figuratively, to crop up in the landscape.
See also: come a cropper.



1The back part of something, especially a building orvehicle:the kitchen door at the rear of the house

1.1The space or position at the back of something or someone:the field at the rear of the church
1.2The hindmost part of an armyfleet, or line ofpeople:two policemen at the rear fell out of theformation

1.3(also rear end) informal A person’s buttocks.


[ATTRIBUTIVE]Back to top  
At the back:the car’s rear window
Middle English (first used as a military term): from Old French rere, based on Latin retro 'back'.


Syllabification: rear
Pronunciation: /ri(ə)r/
  • 1 [with object] (usually be reared) bring up and care for (a child) until they are fully grown, especially in a particular manner or place: he was born and reared in New York City a generation reared on video

  • 1.1(of an animal) care for (its young) until they are fully grown.

  • 1.2breed and raise (animals): the calves are reared for beef

  • 1.3grow or cultivate (plants): [as adjective, in combination]: (-reared) laboratory-reared plantlets

  • 2 [no object] (of a horse or other animal) raise itself upright on its hind legs: the horse reared in terror a rattlesnake reared up at his elbow

  • 2.1 [with adverbial of place] (of a building, mountain, etc.) extend or appear to extend to a great height: houses reared up on either side

  • 2.2 (rear up) (of a person) show anger or irritation; go on the attack: the press reared up in the wake of the bombings

  • 2.3 [with object] archaic set (something) upright.


rear one's head

raise one’s head.
(rear its head) (of an unpleasant matter) emerge; present itself: elitism is rearing its ugly head again



Old English rǣran 'set upright, construct, elevate', of Germanic origin; related to raise (which has supplanted rear in many applications), also to rise.

rear (RISE)
verb [I or T]to ri up or to lift up:denly rose onto its back legs) when it heard the gun shot.
The lion slowly reared its head (= lifted it up) and looked around.rear (BACK) Show phoneticsadjective [before noun]
at the back of something:
There's a sticker on the rear door/window.
The horse had injured one of its rear legs.
See also rearguard.

the rear noun [S]
the back part of something:
We walked round to the rear of the house.
Two police motorcyclists brought up the rear (= formed the last part) of the demonstration.
See also rear (end).

rearmost Show phoneticsadjective [before noun] FORMAL
furthest to the back or the last in a row:
the rearmost seats on the bus

Material is a broad term for the (chemical) substance, or a mixture of substances that constitute a thing. See:-


1The matter from which a thing is or can be made:goats can eat more or less any plant material[COUNT NOUN]: highly flammable materials
1.1(materials) Things needed for an activity:cleaning materials
1.2[WITH ADJECTIVE OR NOUN MODIFIER] A person of a specified quality or suitability:he’s not really Olympic material
2Information or ideas for use in creating a book or other work:his colonial experiences gave him material
2.1Items, such as songs or jokes, comprising a performer’s act:a watchable band playing original material
3Cloth or fabric:a piece of dark material[COUNT NOUN]: dress materials


1[ATTRIBUTIVE] Denoting or consisting of physical objects rather than the mind or spirit:the material world
1.1Concerned with money or possessions rather than the needs of the mind or spirit:material living standards have risen
1.2Concerned with the matter of reasoning, not its form:political conflict lacks mathematical or material certitude
2Significant; important:the insects did not do any material damage to the crop
2.1Law (Of evidence or a fact) significant or relevant, especially to the extent of determining a cause or affecting a judgement:information that could be material to a murder inquiry


Late Middle English (in the sense 'relating to matter'): from late Latin materialis, adjective from Latin materia 'matter'.
(mə-tîr'ē-ə-līz') pronunciation

v., -ized, -iz·ing, -iz·es.
  1. To cause to become real or actual: By building the house, we materialized a dream.
  2. To cause to become materialistic: "Inequality has the natural and necessary effect . . . of materializing our upper class, vulgarizing our middle class, and brutalizing our lower class" (Matthew Arnold).
  1. To assume material or effective form: Their support on the eastern flank did not materialize.
  2. To take physical form or shape.
  3. To appear, especially suddenly. See synonyms at appear.
materialization ma·te'ri·al·i·za'tion (-ə-lĭ-zā'shən) n.
materializer ma·te'ri·al·iz'er n.
USAGE NOTE In its original senses materialize is used without an object to mean "to assume material form," as in Marley's ghost materialized before Scrooge's eyes, or with an object to mean "to cause to assume material form," as in Disney materialized his dream in a plot of orchard land in Orange County. But these uses are probably less common nowadays than two extended senses of the verb. In the first, the meaning is roughly "to appear suddenly," as in No sooner had we set the menu down than a waiter materialized at our table. Some critics have labeled this use as pretentious or incorrect, but it has been around for more than a century, appears in the writing of highly respected writers, and seems a natural extension of the original sense. The second meaning is "to take effective shape, come into existence." In this use, materialize tends to be applied to things or events that have been foreseen or anticipated, and usually occurs in negative constructions: The promised subsidies never materialized. It was thought the community would oppose the measure, but no new objections materialized. While objections continue to materialize against this usage, it too is well established in reputable writing and follows a familiar pattern of metaphoric extension.


sháre • cròp
sharecrops (三人称単数現在)
sharecropper, (全1件)
[動](〜ped, 〜・ping)(他)(自)((米))(土地を)物納契約で耕作する.



share and share alike

having or receiving an equal share:their representatives shared the inheritance share and share alike
share a moment

see moment.


(also sharable) adjective


Definition of overshare

[no object] (often as noun oversharing)
  • reveal an inappropriate amount of detail about one’s personal life:her taste for oversharing was part of a grassroots publicity campaign that cost her and her label nothing