2016年2月21日 星期日

phage, mammalian, oesophagus, gullet, break down, intake, calculated risk

In the 1920s, doctors found they could treat certain infections with bacteriophages—viruses that attack bacterial cells but not mammalian ones. Phage therapy, as this practice is known, fell out of favour in the West after the development of antibiotics. But antibiotics are faltering as resistant strains of germ evolve. Some Western researchers are therefore looking afresh at phages, hoping, with modern methods, to turn them into tailored treatments for infection http://econ.st/1ADaFz9

A way to treat bacterial infections with artificial viruses

Preceding an interview with Andrew Marr on a Sunday morning BBC TV show, 18 September 2011, it was revealed that his treatment for three-times recurring cancer of the oesophagus had been unsuccessful. After being told by his doctor that he only had three months to live, Gould described himself as being in the "death zone":
This time it was clear. I was, you know... I was in a different place, a death zone, where there was such an intensity, such a power. And apparently this is normal. And so, even though obviously I'd, you know, rather not be in this position, it is the most extraordinary time of my life, certainly the most important time of my life.[8]

Israeli Jets Strike at Arms Shipments Near Damascus

Experts said Israel took a calculated risk that strikes, aimed at disrupting arms flow to Hezbollah, would provoke a limited response.

《中英對照讀新聞》Drinking over recommended limit raises cancer risk 飲酒過量提高癌症風險
Drinking more than a pint of beer a day can substantially increase the risk of some cancers, research suggests. The Europe-wide study of 363,988 people reported in the British Medical Journal found one in 10 of all cancers in men and one in 33 in women were caused by past or current alcohol intake.
More than 18% of alcohol-related cancers in men and about 4% in women were linked to excessive drinking. The study calculated that in 2008 current and past drinking habits were responsible for about 13,000 cancer cases in the UK, out of a total of 304,000 cases.
Previous research has shown a link between alcohol consumption and cancers of the oesophagus, liver, bowel and female breast.
When alcohol is broken down by the body it produces a chemical which can damage DNA, increasing the chance of developing cancer. Of the cancers known to be linked to alcohol, the researchers suggest that 40% to 98% occurred in people who drank more than the recommended maximum.
raise:動詞,提高。例句:Would all those in favour please raise their hands?(支持的人可以舉一下手嗎?)
break down:片語,分解。例句:These enzymes break down food in the stomach.(這些酵素在胃裡分解食物。)
maximum:名詞,極大值、最大限度。例句:The temperature will reach a maximum of 27°C today.(今天最高氣溫會達到攝氏27度。)

stick in one's throat [or gullet]
  • ((話)) 〈言葉が〉なかなか出てこない;〈提案などが〉受け入れがたい[気に入らない];〈骨などが〉のどに引っかかる
    • The words of sympathy stuck in her throat.
    • 彼女は同情の言葉をかけようとしたが,なかなか言えなかった.

gul • let
stick in one's gullet 全1件
  1. [名詞]
  2. 1 食道(◆esophagus の日常語).
  3. 2 のど,咽頭いんとう.
  4. 3 水路,水道.
  5. 4 小峡谷(gully).
  6. 5 (掘削作業でダンプカーの通れるように掘り下げた)予備通路.
  7. 6 (のこぎりの歯と歯の間の)くぼみ,目.
  1. stick in one's gullet
  1. ━━ [他動詞]
  2. 1 〈のこぎりの〉目立てをする.
  3. 2 …に水路を作る.

oesophagus  食道
also oe·soph·a·gus (ĭ-sŏf'ə-gəs) pronunciation
n., pl., -gi, also -gi (-jī', -gī').
The muscular membranous tube for the passage of food from the pharynx to the stomach; the gullet.

[Middle English isophagus, from Medieval Latin ēsophagus, from Greek oisophagos, arbitrary medical coinage perhaps from ois-, future tense stem of pherein, to carry + -phagos, food (unattested sense) (from phagein, to eat).]
esophageal e·soph'a·ge'al (-jē'əl) adj.


Pronunciation: /ˈkalkjʊleɪt/
Translate calculate | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish
Definition of calculate

[with object]
  • 1determine (the amount or number of something) mathematically:the program can calculate the number of words that will fit in the space available [with clause]:local authorities have calculated that full training would cost around £5,000 per teacher
  • determine by reasoning, experience, or common sense; reckon or judge:I was bright enough to calculate that she had been on vacation
  • [no object] (calculate on) include as an essential element in one’s plans.
  • 2 (usually be calculated to do something) intend (an action) to have a particular effect:his last words were calculated to wound her
  • 3 [with clause] US dialect suppose or believe:I calculate it’s pretty difficult to git edication down there



Pronunciation: /-lətɪv/


late Middle English: from late Latin calculat- 'counted', from the verb calculare, from calculus 'a small pebble (as used on an abacus)'

phageLine breaks: phage
Pronunciation: /feɪdʒ/

Definition of phage in English:


Short for bacteriophage.

bacteriophageLine breaks: bac¦terio|phage
Pronunciation: /bakˈtɪərɪə(ʊ)feɪdʒ/

Definition of bacteriophage in English:

noun  噬菌  ;[名](バクテリオ)ファージ:細菌に寄生するウイルス. Biology

virus which parasitizes a bacterium by infecting it and reproducing inside it. Bacteriophages are much used in genetic research.


1920s: from bacterium + Greek phagein 'eat'.

mammalLine breaks: mam¦mal
Pronunciation: /ˈmam(ə)l/

Definition of mammal in English:


warm-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that isdistinguished by the possession of hair or fur,females that secrete milk for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young.
The first small mammals evolved from reptiles about 200 million years ago, and the group diversified rapidly after the extinction of the dinosaurs to become thedominant form of land animal, with around 4,000 livingspecies. Mammals belong to the class Mammalia, which contains the subclass Prototheria (monotremes) and the infraclasses Metatheria (marsupials) and Eutheria(placental mammals such as rodents, cats, whales,bats, and humans)


Early 19th century: anglicized form (first used in the plural) of modern Latin mammalia, neuter plural of Latin mammalis (adjective), from mamma 'breast' (see mamma2).