2016年10月24日 星期一

throng, rhyme, nursery rhyme, female rhymes,

There have been many claimants to the authorship of what has been claimed to be the best-known four lines of verse in the English language, and also a number of pretenders to the honour of being the original Mary.

One Mary Hughes, of Worthing, Sussex, even has a tombstone pronouncing her fame, but unfortunately in error (FLS News 19 (June 1994), 13). The facts, as laid out by Iona and Peter Opie, are that the original four-verse poem was written by Mrs Sarah Josepha Hale (1788-1879), of Boston, in early 1830, and first published in September of that year in the Juvenile Miscellany.

The poem's other claim to fame, however, is that it is probably the most parodied of verses in the English tradition. As soon as children get too old and wise to appreciate the real thing, they get devilish delight in debunking it, and as they grow older the parodies get ruder or cleverer, and adults are not above using them in comedy routines and satire. All that is needed is the formula ‘Mary had a little… ‘ and the audience understands perfectly what is going on.


Who remembers Samuel Pepys anymore? Of all the dead white males who used to throng the anthologies and the English lit syllabus, Pepys (1633-1703) is now among the deadest, relegated to footnotes and to trivia questions about the correct pronunciation of his name. (It rhymes with cheeps.)

returns, relegate

anthology, omnibus, verbal

For poetry, he's past his prime, He takes an hour to find a rhyme; His fire is out, his wit decayed, His fancy sunk, his muse a jade. I'd have him throw away his pen, But there's no talking to some men." Poet, author, clergyman Jonathan Swift wrote these lines in Verses on the Death of Doctor Swift, in 1733.

雌韻為長腳韻female rhymes

the situation where words at the end of lines in a song, poem, or plain speech sound alike. although not always the case, typical rhymes occur every other line.
"no one is safe,
no one can hide.
til chaos is spread,
our fun won't subside."

"ice cube will swarm
on any mothafucka in a blue uniform.
just cuz I'm from the CPT,
punk police are afraid of me.
a young nigga on a warpath
and when I'm finished, it's gonna be a bloodbath
of cops, dyin' in LA.
yo dre, I got somethin to say-

"you know the day destroys the night,
night divides the day.
tried to run,
tried to hide-
break on through the other side"

"there's a little bit more to show.
i got rhymes in my mind,
embedded like an embryo."

female rhymes

Double rhymes, or rhymes (called in French feminine rhymes because they end in e weak, or feminine) in which two syllables, an accented and an unaccented one, correspond at the end of each line.
A rhyme, in which the final syllables only agree (strain, complain) is called a male rhyme; one in which the two final syllables of each verse agree, the last being short (motionocean), is called female. Female screw, the spiral-threaded cavity into which another, or male, screw turns.
Source: Websters Dictionary
(01 Mar 1998)

group noun [C]
a crowd or large group of people:
A huge throng had gathered round the speaker.

verb [I + adverb or prepositionT]
to be or go somewhere in very large numbers:
Crowds thronged the market place.
The narrow streets were thronged with summer visitors.
[+ to infinitive] Thousands of people thronged to see the exhibition while it was in London.

nursery rhyme (昔から伝わる)童謡, わらべ歌.
"Mary Had a Little Lamb" is a nursery rhyme of 19th-century American origin.

 Mary had a little lamb,
The Redstone School, now in Sudbury, Massachusetts, is believed to be the schoolhouse mentioned in the nursery rhyme.
Inside the schoolhouse.
The nursery rhyme was first published (as opposed to written) as an original poem by Sarah Josepha Hale on May 241830, and was inspired by an actual incident.
As a girl, Mary Sawyer (later Mrs. Mary Tyler) kept a pet lamb, which she took to school one day at the suggestion of her brother. A commotion naturally ensued. Mary recalled:
"Visiting school that morning was a young man by the name of John Roulstone, a nephew of the Reverend Lemuel Capen, who was then settled in Sterling. It was the custom then for students to prepare for college with ministers, and for this purpose Mr. Roulstone was studying with his uncle. The young man was very much pleased with the incident of the lamb; and the next day he rode across the fields on horseback to the little old schoolhouse and handed me a slip of paper which had written upon it the three original stanzas of the poem..."[1]
There are two competing theories on the origin of this poem. One holds that Roulstone wrote the first four lines and that the final twelve lines, more moralistic and much less childlike than the first, were composed by Sarah Josepha Hale; the other is that Hale was responsible for the entire poem.
Mary Sawyer's house, located in Sterling, Massachusetts, was destroyed by arson on August 122007.[2] A statue representing Mary's Little Lamb stands in the town center. The Redstone School, which was built in 1798, was purchased by Henry Ford and relocated to a churchyard on the property of Longfellow's Wayside Inn in Sudbury, Massachusetts.



In the 1830s, Lowell Mason set the nursery rhyme to a melody adding repetition in the verses:
Mary had a little lamb,
little lamb, little lamb,
Mary had a little lamb,
whose fleece was white as snow.
And everywhere that Mary went,
Mary went, Mary went,
and everywhere that Mary went,
the lamb was sure to go.

It followed her to school one day
school one day, school one day,
It followed her to school one day,
which was against the rules.
It made the children laugh and play,
laugh and play, laugh and play,
it made the children laugh and play
to see a lamb at school.

And so the teacher turned it out,
turned it out, turned it out,
And so the teacher turned it out,
but still it lingered near,
And waited patiently about,
patiently about, patiently about,
And waited patiently about
till Mary did appear.

"Why does the lamb love Mary so?"
Love Mary so? Love Mary so?
"Why does the lamb love Mary so,"
the eager children cry.
"Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know."
The lamb, you know, the lamb, you know,
"Why, Mary loves the lamb, you know,"
the teacher did reply.

verb [I or T] Words which rhyme have the same last sound:
'Blue' and 'flew' rhyme.
you think of a word that rhymes with 'orange'?

1 [C] a word which has the same last sound as another word:
Can you think of a rhyme for 'orange'?
2 a short poem, especially for young children:
a book of rhymes and songs
See also nursery rhyme.
3 [U] the use of rhymes in poetry:
This poem is her first attempt at rhyme.

be no/without rhyme or reason
to be without any obvious reasonable explanation:
Government money was given out to some people and not to others, apparently without rhyme or reason.
There is no rhyme or reason to her behaviour.

in rhyme
written as a poem so that the word at the end of a line has the same last sound as a word at the end of another line:
A lot of modern poetry is not written in rhyme.

(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)
━━ n. 韻, 脚韻, 押韻(おういん); 同韻語 ((for, to)); 押韻詩, 韻文, 詩.

rhyme or reason ((否定的な文で)) わけも理由も(…ない).━━ v. 作詩する, 韻文にする; 韻が合う, 韻を踏ませる ((with)).

eye [printer's, sight, spelling, visual] rhme 視覚韻 ((発音と無関係な,つづり字だけの押韻:例 nasal, canal)). nursery rhme 童謡.

double [female, feminine] rhyme 女性韻, 二重韻 ((強弱の2音節から成る)).
single [male, masculine] rhyme 男性韻, 単韻 ((行末の1強勢音節のみの押韻:例 eagleeyes, surmise)).
rhyme・ster ━━ n. へぼ詩人.
rhym・ing ━━ a., n. 押韻する(こと).
rhyming couplet 押韻二行連句.
rhyming slang 【言】押韻俗語.