2016年10月1日 星期六

"poetic justice", starstruck, Abrahamic faiths

Poetic Justice: Briton Quits Post, Saying She Helped Taint a Rival
By JOHN F. BURNS
Ruth Padel resigned after she acknowledged helping publicize charges that her rival for Oxford University’s chair in poetry had sexually harassed a former student.
簡介poetic justice:惡有惡報?自業自得?詩的公正?

The works on display at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York express the Jewish, Islamic, and Christian cultures of the time, the three great Abrahamic faiths sharing a city holy to them all, when they weren’t bloodily contesting it.
A captivating show displays the visual evidence of a time and place roiled by dozens of ethnic and religious constituencies.
NEWYORKER.COM|由 PETER SCHJELDAHL 上傳

緣起:颱風天,無意中讀到:

'Did you get the bikes back?'
' Well, Pat, we have one bike here, but somebody stole the other from the culprits. I guess you could call that poetic justice.'
「你們找到腳踏車嗎?」
「嗯,珮德,有一輛在我們這裡,
可是另一輛已給人從疑犯那兒偷走了。我想,這可以說是惡有惡報吧。」
《我的春天投資》(My Investment in Spring by Patricia Sullivan)載《讀者文摘 1986年五月號 英漢對照 》pp.146-52

《讀者文摘》的翻譯除了不願意將複數的「腳踏車」和「疑犯」翻譯出來(這篇恰巧這會讓讀者迷惑,因為之前的「腳踏車」後來「命運不同」…….),通常極可信的。所以將poetic justice 翻譯成「惡有惡報」應該不會大錯。

不過,用poetic justice 查一下中文網站,除大陸一談電影片名解釋它為「Poetic justice-即美德受褒揚,惡行被懲罰。用來加重語氣或反諷。 ...」之外,台灣的都很玄,很有詩意:
---《新新聞》一篇「政論」
「因此,發現以及面對過去歷史的創痛,乃是民主轉型的必要。而在報告書完成之後,透過總統在公開的場合中,向所有人民做陳述,政治上的負責便透過政府的道歉來完成。因此,「真相及和解委員會」的目的,在於透過呈現歷史真實,提供我們瞭解過去的錯誤,給予受難者歷史上應有的評價,而繼任政權也可以透過挖掘過去的錯誤犯行,以及追求適時的調查過程,替獨裁政權壓制的過去,與民主轉型潛在的未來,提供一個積極的橋樑,刻劃出民主的前景與未來,這是一種詩意正義(poetic justice)的形式。」(陳俊宏----面對懲罰與寬恕的兩難時 追求真相才是解套的途徑 
http://www.new7.com.tw/weekly/old/722/722-052.html

---台灣某大學「宗教與死亡」課程資料
「本書還預設了無目的性的歷史目的論,主張解決「大共業生死」
困境的最佳出路,是回歸到人的本原,亦即回歸到自身族群集其歷史文化的宗教、
道德及審美的心靈去真實面對「詩性懲罰」(poetic justice)。」
---文建會一篇探討(柒、面對兩種營造取向之迷失)
... 亦即以違逆自然方式來營造社區;則既使有民主程序,仍將不足以成就真實的社
區總體營造。這就面臨了詩性的審判(poetic justice)[7],繼而在詩性法庭中
聽任社區居民集體的野蠻復歸,社區本身即成為歷史懲罰的對象 ... [7] 參考維柯關於「詩性審判」之論述。
******
《英漢大詞典》的解釋為:「詩的公正,詩的報應(指通常在詩歌、戲劇和小說等中表現的善有善報、惡有惡報的思想)」
--
Webster 1913 Dictionary無此辭條。
--
1) poetic justice. ...The rewarding of virtue and the punishment of vice, often in an especially appropriate or ironic manner....The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.

--(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

poetic justice noun [U]
when something happens to a person that seems particularly fair and deserved, usually because of the bad things that person has done:
例子:
What poetic justice that Brady has to go to court to plead to be allowed to die, just like his innocent victims pleaded to be allowed to live.

--- 《The New Oxford American Dictionary
The fact of experiencing a fitting or deserved retribution for one's action:
The noise was deafening and it was poetic justice when the amplifiers stalled just before the start.

-- 如果我們懂得佛教的「業」之意思,那麼日文的「自業自得」就很容易了解,所以我喜歡他們在「催眠英文」中的解釋和練習:

■今日のイディオム 「自業自得」■
---------------------------------------------------------------
It was ( ) justice that the bomber blew himself up with a bomb
intended to kill others.

「爆弾犯人が殺人を企んだ爆弾で自ら爆死したのは、自業自得だ。
---------------------------------------------------------------
どのような正義を自業自得と言うのでしょうか。
現実の正義というよりむしろ。。。。

■解答■
正解はpoetic(詩人の、詩的な)。

poetic justice(詩的な正義)で、「自業自得」「勧善懲悪」というような意味になります。

英英辞典では、「悪いことが誰かにたいして起きて、それが当然の報いだと
思われるような状況」と説明されています。
まさしく日本語でいうところの「自業自得」ということですね。
現実では必ずしも悪が罰せられるとは限らないからこそ、「詩的な正義」と
いうことなのでしょうか。

日常会話で「(彼がそんな目にあったのは)自業自得だ。」というときには、
He deserved it.  (それを受けるに値する)とか
He asked for it.  (彼自身がそれを求めた)というフレーズで、
「自業自得だ!」を表現しているようです。

poetic justiceの方も表現力アップのためにぜひ覚えておいてください。

---------------------------------------------------------------
It was (poetic) justice that the bomber blew himself up with a bomb
intended to kill others.
「爆弾犯人が殺人を企んだ爆弾で自ら爆死したのは、自業自得だ。

*****文學辭典關於「詩學正義」(poetic justice)?
根據Oxford Concise Dictionary of LITERARY TERMS
The term,"Poetic Justice," is coined by Thomas Rymer in his Tragedies of the Last Age Consider'd(1678) 它原來的意思是這種 「詩的公正」,通常在詩歌、戲劇和小說等中比較可能發生,在現實中不容易有這樣表現分明的善有善報、惡有惡報的思想。即,「詩劇」的報應云云…….

所以這樣說大體可行:
Poetic justice-即美德受褒揚,惡行被懲罰。用來加重語氣或反諷。


2005?
昨天談poetic justice。其實poetic 一字,除了與詩情相關,一直與"美和豐富的情感流露"相關(
Poetic第2義: APPROVING very beautiful or expressing emotion。)

今 天讀1900 年8月26日【紐約時報】發的"尼采教授的訃聞"(Prof. Nietzsche Dead),文末說明他的主要著作

(principal publications): "The Old Faith and the New,"* "The Overman," "The Dawn of Day," "Twilight of the Gods," and "So Spake Zrathustra," which is perhaps the most remarkable of his works.
又讓人想到他的文風:簡要、有力、如詩般的激發人心,前無古人;一句話,這是超級的狂
狷之詩哲。

*2016.7.2  :這本應該非尼采作品:
German philosopher and radical theologian David Friedrich Strauss (1808-1874) distinguished himself as one of Europe's most controversial critics of the Bible and an intellectual martyr for freethought. In The Old Faith & the New (1872) he uses both 19th- century science and leading philosophers to reject God as the creator of the universe and humankind, the divinity of Christ, and the reality of miracles (the Old Faith), thus consigning religion to the domains of history, myth, and ethics. With Christianity's cosmology undermined, Strauss constructs a new view of the universe and humanity's place in it grounded in science and contemporary technology, Darwinian evolution, and inductive reasoning (the New Faith), all of which offered the hope of finding solutions to human problems.

***
An Abrahamic religion is a religion whose people believe that the Hebrew patriarch Abraham and his descendants hold an important role in human spiritual development. The best known Abrahamic religions are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. ... Abrahamic religions are "monotheistic", meaning that they believe in just one God.

Abrahamic religion - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abrahamic_religion


Shortly before 5 p.m., Mr. Rangel, who manages the company’s finances, was waiting to take Mr. Wu to a celebratory dinner when Alison Pill, an actress who appears in “Milk,” arrived at the studio. She had come for a fitting of an emerald dress she plans to wear to the Screen Actors Guild Awards on Sunday.
“When I saw the movie,” Mr. Wu told her, “I cried.”
But it was Ms. Pill who appeared star-struck as she replied, “I’m the next Michelle Obama!”

starstruck
or star-struck adj.
Fascinated by or exhibiting a fascination with fame or famous people: “The star-struck tone of the text suggests that the author is giving us an exclusive peek into the secret lives of the justices” (Richard A. Epstein).





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