2016年10月4日 星期二

rebut, untruth, presser, fabrication, half-truth, rebuttal to anti-Semitic

Brexit Secretary David Davis says EU referendum campaign untruths were not important
Untruths and hyperbole deployed by politicians during the EU referendum campaign were not important and did not swing the result of the vote, the…

Black Lives Matter Was Gaining Ground. Then a Sniper Opened Fire.


The group faces perhaps the biggest crisis in its short history, as it scrambles to distance itself from the Dallas gunman and tries to rebut a chorus of detractors.

Google Rebuts Europe on Antitrust Charges

Apple Rebuts Complaints of Bending iPhones

Five major untruths from Putin's first press conference on Ukraine:

Our debate on privatisation has reached the rebuttal stage. So far 51% disagree with the view that a new wave of privatisations is needed. Cast your vote and comment via http://econ.st/1fEv3rc

Fashion Designer Convicted in Anti-Semitism Case
French court fines John Galliano $8,500 for comments he made at a a Parisian bar.

Bachmann Plans Own Rebuttal to Obama's Job Speech
GOP hopeful will hold a Capitol Hill presser at the same time the NFL season kicks off.

Paranoia is a bipartisan temptation. Amid last August’s town hall frenzy, there was a stir over a poll showing that roughly a third of Republicans believed that Barack Obama had been born outside the United States. Liberals trumpeted the finding as proof of the Republican base’s slide into madness. But conservatives had a rebuttal: As recently as 2007, they pointed out, polls showed that a third of Democrats believed George W. Bush knew about 9/11 in advance.

Elior, who teaches Jewish mysticism at Jerusalem's Hebrew University, claims that the Essenes were a fabrication by the 1st century A.D. Jewish-Roman historian Flavius Josephus and that his faulty reporting was passed on as fact throughout the centuries. As Elior explains, the Essenes make no mention of themselves in the 900 scrolls found by a Bedouin shepherd in 1947 in the caves of Qumran, near the Dead Sea. "Sixty years of research have been wasted trying to find the Essenes in the scrolls," Elior tells TIME. "But they didn't exist. This is legend on a legend." (See pictures of 60 years of Israel.)
Elior contends that Josephus, a former Jewish priest who wrote his history while being held captive in Rome, "wanted to explain to the Romans that the Jews weren't all losers and traitors, that there were many exceptional Jews of religious devotion and heroism. You might say it was the first rebuttal to anti-Semitic literature." She adds, "He was probably inspired by the Spartans. For the Romans, the Spartans were the highest ideal of human behavior, and Josephus wanted to portray Jews who were like the Spartans in their ideals and high virtue." (See pictures of disputed artifiacts.)
Early descriptions of the Essenes by Greek and Roman historians has them numbering in the thousands, living communally ("The first kibbutz," jokes Elior) and forsaking sex — which goes against the Judaic exhortation to "go forth and multiply." Says Elior: "It doesn't make sense that you have thousands of people living against the Jewish law and there's no mention of them in any of the Jewish texts and sources of that period." (Read "Is This Jesus's Tomb?")
So who were the real authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls? Elior theorizes that the Essenes were really the renegade sons of Zadok, a priestly caste banished from the Temple of Jerusalem by intriguing Greek rulers in 2nd century B.C. When they left, they took the source of their wisdom — their scrolls — with them. "In Qumran, the remnants of a huge library were found," Elior says, with some of the early Hebrew texts dating back to the 2nd century B.C. Until the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the earliest known version of the Old Testament dated back to the 9th century A.D. "The scrolls attest to a biblical priestly heritage," says Elior, who speculates that the scrolls were hidden in Qumran for safekeeping. (See pictures of Jews and Muslims in the Holy Land.)
Elior's theory has landed like a bombshell in the cloistered world of biblical scholarship. James Charlesworth, director of the Dead Sea Scrolls project at Princeton Theological Seminary and an expert on Josephus, says it is not unusual that the word Essenes does not appear in the scrolls. "It's a foreign label," he tells TIME. "When they refer to themselves, it's as 'men of holiness' or 'sons of light.' " Charlesworth contends that at least eight scholars in antiquity refer to the Essenes. One proof of Essene authorship of the Dead Sea Scrolls, he says, is the large number of inkpots found by archaeologists at Qumran.
But Elior claims says these ancient historians, namely Philo and Pliny the Elder, either borrowed from each other or retailed second-hand stories as fact. "Pliny the Elder describes the Essenes as 'choosing the company of date palms' beside the Dead Sea. We know Pliny was a great reader, but he probably never visited Israel," she says.
Elior is braced for more criticism of her theory. "Usually my opponents have only read Josephus and the other classical references to the Essenes," she says. "They should read the Dead Sea Scrolls — all 39 volumes. The proof is there."
See pictures of Jews and Muslims in the Holy Land.
Read a TIME cover story on the Dead Sea Scrolls.


As Campaign Heats Up, Untruths Can Become Facts Before They're Undone
From the moment Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin declared that she had opposed the infamous "Bridge to Nowhere," critics, the news media and nonpartisan fact checkers have called it a fabrication or, at best, a half-truth. But yesterday in Lebanon, Ohio, and again in Lancaster, Pa., she crossed that bridge...
(By Jonathan Weisman, The Washington Post)

verb [T]
to invent or produce something false in order to deceive:
He was late, so he fabricated an excuse to avoid trouble.
He claims that the police fabricated evidence against him.

noun [C or U]
The evidence he gave in court was a complete fabrication.

noun [C]
a statement which is intended to deceive by being only partly true

re·but (rĭ-bŭt') pronunciation
v., -but·ted, -but·ting, -buts. v.tr.
  1. To refute, especially by offering opposing evidence or arguments, as in a legal case.
  2. To repel.
To present opposing evidence or arguments.

[Middle English reboten, rebutte, to rebuke, repel, from Old French rebouter : re-, re- + bouter, to push (of Germanic origin).]

━━ vt. (-tt-) 反駁(はんばく)する, 反証する; はねつける.


Line breaks: rebut
Pronunciation: /rɪˈbʌt /

VERB (rebutsrebuttingrebutted)

1Claim or prove that (evidence or an accusation) isfalse:he had to rebut charges of acting for the convenienceof his political friends

2archaic Drive back or repel (a person or attack):but he ... their sharp assault right boldly did rebut


Middle English (in the senses 'rebuke' and 'repulse'): from Anglo-Norman French rebuter, from Old French re-(expressing opposition) + boter 'to butt'. Sense 1 (originally a legal use) dates from the early 19th century.

re·but·tal (rĭ-bŭt'l) pronunciation
  1. The act of rebutting.
  2. A statement made in rebutting.
an instance of rebutting evidence or an accusation. More example sentences
  • My post below, about Architecture was never designed as evidence for the rebuttal.
  • In some instances, Baker provided rebuttals to her critics.
  • In general, an effective rebuttal will require evidence that Marjorie's actions were voluntary.


Line breaks: re|but|tal
Pronunciation: /rɪˈbʌtl /


1An instance of rebutting evidence or an accusation.

1.1another term for rebutter.


  • 発音記号[səmítik]
1 [U]セム語. (閃族語)
2 ((〜s))((単数扱い))セム学.
━━[形]セム族の, (特に)ユダヤ人の;セム語の.