2016年10月8日 星期六

gourd, leftover subjects, excoriating, bitter gourd

Robert De Niro has launched an excoriating attack on Donald Trump. The actor doesn't pull any punches in his criticism calling him a 'fool', a 'bozo' and 'an embarrassment to the nation'. And that's probably the nicest stuff...

 Their old teacher of Chinese classics, Sakuma (Eijirō Tōno), nicknamed the "Gourd", comes to one of these reunions and has too much to drink.

Hitchens was known for his admiration of George Orwell, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson and for his excoriating critiques of, among others, Mother Teresa,[13] Bill and Hillary Clinton, and Henry Kissinger. His confrontational style of debate made him both a lauded and controversial figure. As a political observer, polemicist and self-defined radical, he rose to prominence as a fixture of the left-wing publications in his native Britain and in the United States.

Gui Zhuang, his son, also a painter of bamboo, took up more positive forms of activism, simultaneously organizing a counterinsurgency and excoriating the old regime for having so miserably failed the Chinese people. A 1658 painting by him is the one work in the opening gallery that postdates the Manchu takeover. It introduces the rest of the show and the wide range of responses by loyalist artists — known as yimin遺民, or leftover subjects — who through their art were trying to deal with social and cultural trauma.


  • 発音記号[ikskɔ'ːrièit]
1 〈書物・演劇などを〉激しく非難する.
2 …の皮をはぐ;…の皮膚をすりむく
His bare feet were excoriated by the straps of his sandals.

SYNONYMS chafe, abrade, excoriate, fret, gall. These verbs mean to wear down or rub away a surface by or as if by scraping: chafed my skin; water abrading the canyon walls; metal bristles that excoriated her scalp; rope that fretted a groove in the post; stone steps galled by years of heavy use.


1 (思考・議論などの)主題;問題, 課題, 話題, 論題;(研究・説教・物語・美術作品の)主題, テーマ, 題材, (音楽作品の)主題, 主楽想(theme);主旋律((of ...))
the subject of the debate
on the subject of ...
change the subject
[類語]subject適用範囲が広く, 文章・演説・美術などで扱われる題材. theme講演・著作などの底に流れる基本概念. subjectを扱うときの主調をさすこともある:The subject of the book is the question of racism, but anti-racism is its theme. 本の主題は人種差別問題だが, その主調は反人種差別である. topic談話・文章などの一節で扱われる比較的小さい題材. また日常会話の話題.
2 教科, 学科, 科目
required [elective] subjects
3 ((しばしばa 〜))(…の)動機, 原因, 根拠((of, for ...));(行為・感情の)対象(となる人, 物)
the subject of investigation
His honesty is a subject for debate.
4 臣下, 家来, 被統治者, (特に君主国の)国民, 臣民;((通例the 〜))((集合的))国民, 臣民. ⇒CITIZEN 1
a Danish subject
5 《文法》主語, 主部. ⇒PREDICATE
6 (他の人・物の)支配[影響]下にある人[物], 崇拝者, 心酔者.
(1) (医学・心理学などの)被験[被術]者, 患者;解剖死体
an experimental subject
(2) ((まれ))病気にかかりやすい人
a manic-depressive subject
8 《論理学》主辞, 主題;《哲学》主体, 主観, 我, 自我;実体.
━━[形] 〔sbdikt〕 (▼比較変化なし)
1 ((形式))(…の)支配[統治]下にある, (…に)服従[従属]する((to ...))
a subject people
be subject to the laws of nature
2 ((叙述))(…を)受けやすい, 免れない, 被りやすい, (…に)さらされている, 左右される((to ...))
be subject to criticism
subject to change without notice
3 ((叙述))(同意・批准などを)必要とする, 条件とする((to ...))
The financial agreement is subject to my approval.
4 [subject to A]((副詞的))〈Aを〉条件[前提]として
Subject to your consent, I propose to try again.
ご承諾が得られれば, もう一度ためしてみたいのですが.
━━[動] 〔sbdékt〕 (他)[III[名][副]]((形式))
1 〈人・国・心などを〉支配する, 征服する, (…に)服従させる((to ...))
subject a nation to one's rule
2 …を(…に)さらす, 当てる, (…に)任せる, 委ねる((to ...))
subject one's plans to another's consideration
3 ((しばしば〜 -selfまたは受身))〈人・物を〉(批判などを)受けさせる, 被らせる((to ...))
subject oneself to criticism
The prisoner was subjected to cruel punishment.
[ラテン語subjectus (sub-下に+iacere投げる+-tus=下に投げられた者→身分の低い者). △PROJECT, REJECT

石濤生于明朝末年,十五歲時,明朝滅亡,父親被唐王捉殺。國破家亡,石濤被迫逃亡到廣西全州,在湘山寺削發為僧。以後顛沛流離,輾 轉于廣西、江西、安徽、江蘇、浙江、陜西、河北等地,到晚年才定居揚州。他帶著內心的矛盾和隱痛,創作了大量精湛的作品。最為人推崇的,是他畫中那種奇險 兼饒秀潤的獨特風格,筆墨中包含的那種淡淡的苦澀味。 一種和苦瓜極為近似的韻致。
In one thing he was consistent: his brilliance. And part of that brilliance lay in his never staying still. The exhibition — which comes from the Hong Kong Museum of Art and was organized in New York by Maxwell K. Hearn, the curator in charge of the Met’s Asian department — gives a sense of Shitao’s restlessness. It moves from a big, emphatic painting, all spritzes, swipes and spiny rays, of a sinewy pine tree and a thundercloud of a rock to a suite of vegetable still lifes (Shitao referred to himself as “a bitter gourd,” only for the discerning palate) to a dozen album paintings illustrating poems by Huang Yanlu, a patron and friend.

Gourds grown in a suburban garden

A calabash gourd, used for drinking mate
  • [gɔ'ːrd | gúəd]
1 ウリ科の果実の総称;(特に)ヒョウタンの実.
2 《植物》ヒョウタンのなる植物の総称
a wax gourd
3 ひょうたんふくべ;ひょうたん形の細口瓶[フラスコ].
4 ((米俗))頭
lose one's gourd
off [out of] one's gourd