2016年7月30日 星期六

preamble, attain, pernicious, fleece (CHEAT), knock-on effect

Emily Brontë, author of "Wuthering Heights", was born on July 30th 1818. She wrote anonymously, using the male nom de plume Ellis Bell, and was grateful for the mask; her novels were savaged as “vulgar”, “brutalising” and “pernicious”

The novelist was born on this day in 1818
Research suggests that enabling fathers to look after their newborn children has positive knock-on effects. What are the benefits of paternity leave?

第 18 頁
Aim and Preamble Purpose of this chapter. Western style of management must change to halt the decline of Western industry, and to turn it upward. ...

Ruth Smallacombe, of divorce specialists Family Lawyers in Partnership, said: "The general belief that men get fleeced by their divorces while women get richer and live off the proceeds has long been due for exposure as a pernicious myth. In reality, women often suffer economic hardship when they divorce. In addition, the resentment caused by unfair financial settlements has many knock-on effects."

Obama Pledges Entitlement Reform
President-elect Barack Obama pledged yesterday to shape a new Social Security and Medicare "bargain" with the American people, saying that the nation's long-term economic recovery cannot be attained unless the government finally gets control over its most costly entitlement programs.
(By Michael D. Shear, The Washington Post)

HC我最近到台北市立教育大學教授{戴明領導手冊}(The Leader Handbook),準備功課時重讀它和相關書籍,百感交集。
1993年五月,英國戴明協會(BDA)舉辦第六屆年會,Peter Scholtes 負責最後一小時的總結,後來將演講稿等整理出版小冊子(編號W4;屬BDA的世界系列),書名為Learning and Leadership。這本,後來編成 The Leader Handbook 的一部分,詳{戴明領導手冊} 。不過,現在讀 Learning and Leadership可以有點”身歷其境”的感受。這是整理成書之後無法體會的。書的(口語)序文(開場白)取名Preamble,都是較不常見的用法。 一開始說:The assignment was interesting: it was one hour with no title. Sort of an 007 topic. I have licence to kill, I guess.


preamble 通常是放在”正式文件”前以述解正文之旨, 如美國獨立宣言, 憲法等在正文前都有這麼一個preamble. 他 (sic) 許{戴明領導手冊} 也是這個用意吧?
王勃那”區區”滕王閣八句, 卻寫了老長一篇序, 應該也算是”preamble”吧 ;-)

hc 2015.11.03補

pre·am·ble (prē'ăm'bəl, prē-ăm'-) pronunciation
  1. A preliminary statement, especially the introduction to a formal document that serves to explain its purpose.
  2. An introductory occurrence or fact; a preliminary.
[Middle English, from Old French preambule, from Medieval Latin praeambulum, from neuter of praeambulus, walking in front : prae-, pre- + ambulāre, to walk; see ambulate.]
n. - 前文, 前言, 序文
日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 序文, 前文, 前置き
A clause at the beginning of a constitution or statute explaining the reasons for its enactment and the objectives it seeks to attain.
Generally a preamble is a declaration by the legislature of the reasons for the passage of the statute, and it aids in the interpretation of any ambiguities within the statute to which it is prefixed. It has been held, however, that a preamble is not an essential part of an act, and it neither enlarges nor confers powers.

After a long rambling preamble where Waite lays his hermeneutical and political cards on the table and spells out the parameters and goals of his project, he takes on some leading Nietzsche interpretations, showing how readers on both the Right and Left fail to see Nietzsche's esoteric philosophy and cunning strategies to make himself the fate of the twentieth century. For Waite, contemporary readers also systematically occlude the more disturbing elements of Nietzsche's thought, underestimate the importance of Nietzsche's unpublished notes and manuscripts for his esoteric teachings, and ignore or are ignorant of the more pernicious effects and consequences of Nietzsche's teaching.

fleece (CHEAT)
to take someone's money dishonestly, by charging too much money or by cheating them:
That restaurant really fleeced us!

knock-on effect
noun [C usually singular] MAINLY UK
When an event or situation has a knock-on effect, it indirectly causes other events or situations:
If one or two trains run late, it has a knock-on effect on the entire rail service.

adjective FORMAL
having a very harmful effect or influence:
The cuts in government funding have had a pernicious effect on local health services.attain phonetics
verb [T] FORMAL
to reach or succeed in getting something; to achieve:
He has attained the highest grade in his music exams.
We need to identify the best ways of attaining our objectives/goals.
India attained independence in 1947, after decades of struggle.

adjective FORMAL
possible to achieve:
We must ensure that we do not set ourselves goals that are not attainable.

1 [U] FORMAL when you achieve something:
the attainment of a goal
attainment targets

2 [C usually plural] UK FORMAL Someone's attainments are the things they have done and the skills they have learned.