2016年7月1日 星期五

squiggle, gerrymender, salamander, protuberances, once-a-decade process

These 10 districts are a mess of squiggles, offshoots and tentacle-looking protuberances.
A brief overview of crimes against geography in the 113th Congress.
Washington Post
Gerrymandering refers, in an American context, to drawing legislative districts in order to maximise partisan advantage. How do politicians do it, and why? http://econ.st/HqUyAK

Battles to Shape Maps, and Congress, Go to Courts

The once-a-decade process of drawing Congressional districts has prompted lawsuits in more than half the states over issues like partisan gerrymandering and accusations of discrimination.





Prisons, Redistricting and the Census

The early release of prison population data by the Census Bureau may help reformers who are trying to end prison-based gerrymandering.



>Most professionals now believe that *representative* sampling gives
more accurate information about a population than an exhaustive census.
*...*

Yes, this is something Deming tried to persuade the US authorities to
accept, but the Federal law requires full enumeration. This is probably
more to prevent electoral fraud than to achieve statistical accuracy, as
the census determines voting strength in the lower house. The US has a
long tradition of electoral fraud, as the term "Gerrymandering" attests.


salamander

有尾目學名Caudata)是終身有尾的兩棲動物,一共有960約358,幼體與成體形態上差別不大,主要包括蠑螈小鯢大鯢
有尾目動物有發展完全的前肢後肢,大小大約一致,但四肢細弱,少數種類僅有前肢(鰻螈)。眼小,或隱於皮下(洞螈),沒有鼓膜外耳開口。牙齒位於下頜。身體有黏膜皮膚,沒有鱗片或尖銳的爪子。通常行體內受精

傑利蠑螈(Gerrymander)乃指選區劃分之方式是專為某方選舉利益而設計的。這個字詞從美國麻薩諸塞州州長蓋利(Elbridge Gerry)的名字,及當時劃分後的選區形狀貌似蠑螈(salamander)此兩者而來。
傑利蠑螈這詞的原文「Gerrymander」在其語言的使用方法中,可同時作動詞和名詞使用。作動詞時,指將選區劃分成對特定某方有利;作名詞 時,指專對特定某方利益設計並劃分後的選區。其發音方面,原麻州州長蓋利(Gerry)裡的「G」是發音成硬G/g/,但在傑利蠑螈 (gerrymander)裡,因為顎化的關係而發音成軟G。


Salamender-Gerrymendertr.v., -dered, -der·ing, -ders.
To divide (a geographic area) into voting districts so as to give unfair advantage to one party in elections.
n.
  1. The act, process, or an instance of gerrymandering.
  2. A district or configuration of districts differing widely in size or population because of gerrymandering.
[After Elbridge GERRY + (SALA)MANDER (from the shape of an election district created while Gerry was governor of Massachusetts).]
WORD HISTORY “An official statement of the returns of voters for senators give[s] twenty nine friends of peace, and eleven gerrymanders.” So reported the May 12, 1813, edition of the Massachusetts Spy. A gerrymander sounds like a strange political beast, which it is, considered from a historical perspective. This beast was named by combining the word salamander, “a small lizardlike amphibian,” with the last name of Elbridge Gerry, a former governor of Massachusetts—a state noted for its varied, often colorful political fauna. Gerry (whose name, incidentally, was pronounced with a hard g, though gerrymander is now commonly pronounced with a soft g) was immortalized in this word because an election district created by members of his party in 1812 looked like a salamander. According to one version of gerrymander's coining, the shape of the district attracted the eye of the painter Gilbert Stuart, who noticed it on a map in a newspaper editor's office. Stuart decorated the outline of the district with a head, wings, and claws and then said to the editor, “That will do for a salamander!” “Gerrymander!” came the reply. The word is first recorded in April 1812 in reference to the creature or its caricature, but it soon came to mean not only “the action of shaping a district to gain political advantage” but also “any representative elected from such a district by that method.” Within the same year gerrymander was also recorded as a verb.
****噴火龍?
A salamander is an amphibian that usually has four legs and a tail that is almost as long as its body. There are hundreds of different types of salamanders, including newts, mud puppies, and hellbenders. Like other amphibians, salamanders hatch from eggs laid in water or moist areas. They then go through a larval (youth) stage as aquatic creatures with gills, eventually metamorphosing, or changing, into air-breathing adults that live on land. Some salamander species, like the mud puppy, keep their gills in adulthood.
Some types of newts, after graduating from aquatic larvae to land-dwelling adults (at which point they are called "efts"), will spend a couple years on land only to return to water permanently. They continue to breathe through lungs (and through their skin), but they spend the rest of their days living in the water.



protuberance

Line breaks: pro|tu¦ber|ance
Pronunciation: /prəˈtjuːb(ə)r(ə)ns/

noun


squiggle

Line breaks: squig¦gle
Pronunciation: /ˈskwɪg(ə)l/

noun

  • A short line that curls and loops in an irregular way: some prescriptions are a series of meaningless squiggles

verb

[no object] chiefly North American Back to top  

Derivatives


squiggly

adjective (squigglier, squiggliest)

Origin

early 19th century: perhaps a blend of squirm and wiggle or wriggle.

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