2016年10月4日 星期二

work ethic, ethical failure, The Ethical Function of Architecture)

"a culture of ethical failure"

The Washington PostLos Angeles Times, and the Wall Street Journal's world-wide newsbox lead with an Interior Department investigation that found "a culture of ethical failure" at the agency that is in charge of collecting billions of dollars worth of royalties from oil and gas companies.


Karsten Harries [美]卡斯騰‧哈里斯 著《建築的倫理功能》(The Ethical Function of Architecture),申嘉,陳朝暉譯,北京:華夏出版社,2001
按:
"現在作者是第三次選用這個標題,因為本書表明,該標題所提出的問題對作者而言一直是個挑戰,其中“倫理的(ethical)”一詞據作者理解與希臘語ethos(精神特質)更相關,而不是我們通常所指的“ethics(倫理、道德)”,如我們談到“商業道德”或“醫德”時的那種意思:本書中所稱的architectual ethics完全不是“建築道德”的意思。" 本書應翻譯成《建築的文化風氣功能》。http://hcbooks.blogspot.tw/2014/10/karsten-harries.html

ethic 
noun [C usually plural]
a system of accepted beliefs which control behaviour, especially such a system based on morals:
the (Protestant) work ethic
The ethics of journalism are much debated.
He said he was bound by a scientist's code of ethics.
Publication of the article was a breach of ethics.work ethic noun [C]労働を善とする考え.
the belief that work is morally good:
The work ethic was never very strong in Simon.

the Protestant work ethic
the belief that work is valuable as an activity, as well as for what it produces

ethical 
adjective
ethical problems/standards
ethical practice
We are a moral, ethical people and therefore we do not approve of their activities.

ethically 
This action is ethically questionable.

ethics
noun [U]
the study of what is morally right and what is not


eth・ic



 
━━ a., n.ethical; 道徳律, (個人の)倫理.
eth・i・cal ━━ a. 道徳(上)の, 倫理的な, 倫理学(上)の; 道義にかなう; (薬が)売買に医師の処方を要する.
eth・i・cal・ly ad.
ethic investment 【金融】倫理的(企業)投資.
eth・ics ━━ n.pl. 倫理(学).

試 管嬰兒、捐卵、葉克膜及器官移植都是現代醫學的奇妙工具,這些發明不但改變了生殖概念,也扭轉了死亡的命運。科學巨輪奔馳下,現代社會也逐漸演化並且立法 尊重婦女的生育選擇權,英國(1967)、美國(1973)、台灣(1984)先後通過墮胎法,同時也出現容許安樂死(荷蘭)與醫師協助自殺的國家(瑞士 與美國奧瑞岡州),在後現代社會中除了產生多元的道德外,也與十九世紀以來,以邊沁、彌爾為首的功利主義哲學家所揭櫫的「為最大多數人的最大幸福」匯流, 在二十一世紀形成一股可觀的信仰與追隨者,這股趨勢正如普林斯頓生物倫理學家辛格所評論:「在科技發展與人口老化的壓力下,所謂生命神聖的觀念終將分崩離 析,未來大概只剩一些活在象牙塔的基本教義派會認為從受精到死亡都有神聖性。」

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