2018年5月5日 星期六

incarceration, conviction, be drafted, rough-draft, rough-and-ready

America’s criminal justice system does not need to be heavily dramatised for the silver screen. The realities of mass incarceration are bleak enough

The cities of New York, Philadelphia and San Francisco are suing the Department of Defense for failing to consistently report convictions to a federal database that is checked before firearms purchases

Suspect’s Conviction Was Never Put Into National Database

  • A domestic assault conviction should have barred Devin P. Kelley from legally purchasing the rifle he used to kill 26 people in a Texas church.
  • The Air Force and the Pentagon will be conducting a review of the case and whether other convictions had been left unreported.

Low crime rates; low incarceration rates; a stress on rehabilitation. Japanese criminal justice gets much right. But there’s a dark side

ON THE face of it Japan’s system of criminal justice looks as if its gets a…
For Robert Dear, Religion and Rage Before Planned Parenthood Attack


Mr. Dear was a man of religious conviction who sinned openly, and a man who craved both extreme solitude and female company. Some women say he abused them.

etting hold of drugs for executions in America is growing harder. As old stocks expire, several states have turned to "compounding pharmacies", speciality suppliers that mix their own drugs from the raw active ingredients, to obtain new drugs. Yet using such rough-and-ready suppliers is controversial http://econ.st/1hzFgbf

Judge Upholds Conviction of Ex-Italian Leader6

On June 20, 1967, the boxer Muhammad Ali was convicted in Houston of violating Selective Service laws by refusing to be drafted. The conviction was later overturned by the Supreme Court.

In “Summertime” he takes this schism one bracing step farther, by imagining himself already dead. The book is nominally a kind of rough-draft effort by Coetzee’s own biographer, an Englishman named Vincent, to build the case — through transcribed interviews with lovers and colleagues and other figures mentioned by Coetzee in his “posthumously” opened notebooks — for the years 1971-77 as an especially formative period in the late author’s life, “a period,” as Vincent would have it, “when he was still finding his feet as a writer.”

  1. the state of being confined in prison; imprisonment.
    "the public would not be served by her incarceration"

rough and ready

crude but effective:a rough-and-ready estimating method
(of a person or place) unsophisticated or unrefined: the Hague, a town so bourgeois it makes Amsterdam seem rough and ready


  • 発音記号[drǽft | drɑ'ːft]
1 [U](線で)描くこと, 線描;[C]線(描)画, スケッチ, デッサン, 下図, 設計図
a draft for a machine
2 草稿, 下書き, 草案
the first draft
最初の下書き, 第一草稿
make a rough draft of a speech
3 [U][C]((主に米))すきま風, 通風;(ストーブなどの)通気;[C](ストーブ・暖炉などの)通気装置.
4 [U](積み荷・車を)引くこと, 牽引(けんいん)(力);[C]引かれる物, 引き網, 一網(の漁獲高)
a beast of draft
a draft of fish
5 [U]((米))(糧食・軍勢・資金の)調達, 徴発;((the 〜))徴兵[徴募]制度(((英))the conscription);((集合的))徴募兵;《スポーツ》ドラフト制
escape the draft
6 ((時にthe 〜))選抜隊, 分遣隊.
7 [U][C]((主に英))手形振り出し, (手形などによる)金の引き出し;[C]為替手形, 小切手, 支払い命令書
a draft on demand
pay by draft
8draught 1, 2.
9 枯渇(させるもの);強要
make a draft onupon] ...
10 [U][C](船の)喫水.
11 《鋳造》抜き勾配(こうばい);《石油工学》小叩縁(こたたきぶち).
in draft (form)
on draft
たる出しの, 生の
beer on draft
1 …の下図[下絵]を描く, をスケッチする;…を起草する, の草稿を書く
draft a speech
a drafting committee
2 …を引く, 引っ張る.
3 ((米))
(1) 〈人を〉(軍に)徴兵する(((英))call up)((into ...))
He was drafted into the army.
(2) 〈新人選手を〉ドラフトでとる.
1 荷を引くのに使われる[適した]
a draft horse
荷車用の馬, 挽馬(ばんば).
2 下絵の, 草案の.
3 たる出しの, 生の
rough-draft 草稿
Jobs question: What is a rough draft? Answer A pre-write, your first attempt, at a formal paper that usually is critiqued and improved on until you are ...

Definition of conviction

  • 1a formal declaration by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law that someone is guilty of a criminal offence:she had a previous conviction for a similar offence
  • a firmly held belief or opinion:she takes pride in stating her political convictions [with clause]:his conviction that the death was no accident was stronger
  • [mass noun] the quality of showing that one is firmly convinced of what one believes or says:she had been speaking for some five minutes with force and conviction


late Middle English: from Latin convictio(n-), from the verb convincere (see convince)


  • 発音記号[kənvíkʃən]
1 [U][C](…との)確信, 信念((that節, of ...))
a man [a womanof strong convictions
inunderthe conviction that
speak with conviction
come to the conviction that
His testimony confirmed my conviction of his guilt [=that he was guilty].
2 [U]説得(力);納得
powers of conviction
be open to conviction
説得を受け入れる, 道理に服する
carry conviction
3 [U][C](…のかどで)有罪宣告をされること, 有罪判決((for ...))
a firstprevious] conviction
a summary conviction
a conviction for drunken driving
4 [U]罪の自覚, 悔悟(かいご)
bring a person to a conviction of sin

conviction (CRIME)
noun [C or U]
when someone is officially found to be guilty of a particular crime:
As it was her first conviction for stealing, she was given a less severe sentence.
He has a long record of previous convictions for similar offences.
The conviction of the three demonstrators has caused public outrage locally.

Compare acquittal.