2016年4月16日 星期六

verboten, O.E. D. 謀殺, surreptitious, expunge , up in arms, dustup, mendacity

  While pro baseball slowly accepts in-game use of electronic wearables, the performance tracking gadgets remain verboten by the top football, basketball, and hockey leagues.

Baseball says yes to some wearables during games, while basketball,…

Ministers Express Doubts on Expanding Data Protection Laws

European justice ministers reacted coolly to a plan allowing consumers to expunge the information that Internet firms have collected on them.

Dictionary Dust-Up (Danchi Is Involved)

Is it a felony of lexicographic fecklessness or merely a misdemeanor of misunderstood motives?
Word guardians have been up in arms this week over claims in a new book about the Oxford English Dictionary, which asserts that one of its former editors, Robert Burchfield, surreptitiously expunged hundreds of words with foreign origins.

dust·up  (dstp)
n. Slang
A row; a dispute.

dust down - definition of dust down by the Free Online Dictionary ...

www.thefreedictionary.com/dust+down - Cached
1. to remove dust from by brushing or wiping. 2. to reprimand severely. dusting down n.

up in arms
(1) 戦う用意をして.
(2) ((略式))興奮して;(…に)憤慨して((about, over, against ...))
They were up in arms over high taxes.


expunged (過去形) • expunged (過去分詞) • expunging (現在分詞) • expunges (三人称単数現在)
1 〈言葉・録音・痕跡(こんせき)などを〉(…から)消す, 削除する((from ...))
expunge a name from a list
expunge a person's fingerprints
2 〈記憶・思想などを〉除く, なくする;〈物を〉破壊する;〈生物を〉絶滅させる.
[ラテン語expungere(ex-外へ+pungere突く=突き刺して除く). △PUNGENT, POINT

These accusations come from the linguist Sarah Ogilvie, herself a former editor at the dictionary, in her book “Words of the World: A Global History of the Oxford English Dictionary,” being released Thursday by Cambridge University Press. Her assertions are particularly notable because Dr. Burchfield, the editor of a four-volume supplement of the dictionary completed in 1986, had cultivated the reputation as someone who was far more inclusive than his predecessors.
Deleting words from the dictionary is considered verboten. “The deletion of entries went against all OED policy before and since: usually, once a word is added to the OED, it remains forever,” she wrote.


ver • bo • ten
[形](法律などによって)禁じられた, 禁止された.


verboten ‎(not comparable)
  1. forbiddenprohibited

Usage notes[edit]

One of his best-known accomplishments was to include vulgar slang for copulation and female genitalia. But he also frequently bragged of being far less opposed than previous editors to including foreign words. According to Dr. Ogilvie’s book, he once told Newsweek, “It seemed obvious to me that the vocabulary of all English-speaking countries abroad should receive proper attention.”
The book’s observations were reported this week in The Guardian, and a first wave of reaction on Twitter showed how fascinated people are with language. But though Dr. Burchfield’s reputation absorbed the brunt of the early criticism, many are now rallying to his defense, including representatives of the OED, as the dictionary is known, and even Dr. Ogilvie. Why Dr. Burchfield dropped certain words remains unknown; he died in 2004.
First, some history.
The OED, often considered the bible of the English language, got its start in the mid-1800s. Modifications to the giant book, which require extensive research and citations, do not occur lightly. In 1933 editors compiled a supplement of new words to be added. Dr. Burchfield edited his four-volume supplement decades later.
That supplement was swallowed whole into a new 1989 edition, but the 1933 supplement was not — and therein lies the rub. In compiling his supplement, was Dr. Burchfield more stuffy about the English language than his predecessors, or not?
Dr. Ogilvie said she did not doubt Dr. Burchfield’s claim that he was more broad-minded until she began editing at the OED, after his departure. She said that as she looked through past editions she noticed that words in earlier volumes were missing from Dr. Burchfield’s supplement, particularly those with foreign roots.
She set out to analyze the omissions. By examining a random sample of 10 percent of the words in the four-volume Burchfield supplement and comparing those entries with those in the 1933 supplement, she concluded that Dr. Burchfield deleted 17 percent of words that she broadly categorized as borrowed from regional dialects of English or coming from another language. Among his favorite targets were American words that had crept into the dictionary, like frog-pond and seed-cake, and other foreign-sounding words like danchi (Bengali for a tropical shrub) and boviander (from British Guiana for people of mixed race who live on river banks).
Jesse Sheidlower, editor at large for the OED, said Dr. Ogilvie’s comments were being taken out of context, and that Dr. Burchfield was being unfairly besmirched. He said Dr. Burchfied “did not delete anything.”
“What Burchfield did was create an entirely new supplement in four very large volumes,” Mr. Sheidlower said in an interview. “He included most of the material in the 1933 version, but not everything. He felt that some words were so esoteric that ‘they don’t have to be in my supplement.’ That is what editors do.”
That said, Mr. Sheidlower added, the 1933 entries not included in the four supplements did not vanish. “Those words are still there, and they are being added to OED3 online.” Among the restorations so far, he said, were automobilize (American usage) and aberglaube (German, for a belief in things beyond the certain and verifiable).
In a telephone interview Dr. Ogilvie took a seemingly softer stance toward Mr. Burchfield than she does in her book. “It is important not to attribute mendacity to Burchfield,” she said, “but rather to give the early editors recognition for their contribution toward making the OED a truly global text. This is a good-news story about the early OED editors more than it is a bad-news story about Burchfield.”



men • dac • i • ty
1 [U]((形式))不正直なこと;うそつき癖.
2 うそ, 虚偽.


因為一本新書指控《牛津英語詞典》(Oxford English Dictionary)的前主編之一羅伯特·伯奇菲爾德(Robert Burchfield)偷偷刪去了幾百個外來詞,本周,文字捍衛者們表示了強烈抗議。
這些指控來源於語言學家莎拉·奧格爾維(Sarah Ogilvie)。奧格爾維本人自己也曾是該詞典的主編之一。她的書《世界的文字:牛津英語詞典的世界歷史》(Words of the World: A Global History of the Oxford English Dictionary)周四由劍橋大學出版社(Cambridge University Press)出版。奧格爾維的說法特別引人注意,因為作為1986年完成的四卷《牛津詞典》附錄的編輯,伯奇菲爾德之前給人的印象要比他的前任們顯得更加 兼收並蓄。
伯奇菲爾德最著名成就之一就是收入了大眾對性交和女性生殖器官的俗稱。而他也經常誇耀自己比前任主編們更加不反對添加對外來詞。奧格爾維在書中稱, 他曾對《新聞周刊》(Newsweek)說過,“對我來說似乎很明顯,那些來自海外所有說英語國家的詞彙都應該給予合理的關注。”
本周《衛報》(The Guardian)報道了這本書的言論,Twitter上對此的第一波反應顯示出了人們都對語言是多麼感興趣。但是,儘管伯奇菲爾德的名聲最初遭到批評, 現在,很多人卻開始紛紛為他辯護,包括《牛津詞典》的代表,甚至還包括了奧格爾維自己。伯奇菲爾德為何要刪除一些詞條,原因至今不明;他已於2004年去 世。
她開始分析這些刪略的內容。她從伯奇菲爾德編纂的四卷附錄中隨機抽取10%的詞條與1933年版本的附錄進行對比,之後得出結論,伯奇菲爾德刪除了 17%她大致歸類為從英語方言或是其他語言來的詞。他刪除最多的,是慢慢被收入詞典的美國詞,比如“frog-pond”(青蛙池塘)和“seed- cake”(一種加入植物籽實烘焙的麵包)以及其他一些聽起來像外語的詞,比如“danchi”(孟加拉語,熱帶灌木叢)以及“boviander”(英 屬幾內亞語,指濱河而居的混血人種)。
《牛津詞典》特約編輯傑西·舍伊德羅爾(Jesse Sheidlower)稱,奧格爾維的評論被斷章取義了,伯奇菲爾德遭到了不公正的污衊。他稱,伯奇菲爾德“沒有刪除任何詞”。
舍伊德羅爾又稱,那些在1933年附錄中出現但卻沒有收入這四卷附錄中的詞條並沒有消失。“這些詞還在那兒,它們會被添加到《牛津詞典3》的在線版 本中。”他說,被恢復的詞包括“automobilize”(美語,駕駛或乘坐汽車)以及“aberglaube”(德語,迷信)。
奧格爾維在一次電話採訪中似乎對伯奇菲爾德的態度比在書中稍為柔和了一點。“不能怪罪伯奇菲爾德瞞天過海,”她說,“相反,應該肯定以前的編輯在讓 《牛津詞典》成為一部真正的世界性詞典的過程中,做出的貢獻。這更多地是肯定《牛津詞典》早期編輯們工作的正面新聞,而不是關於伯奇菲爾德的負面新聞。”