2016年4月11日 星期一

contingent, fortuitous, bone of contention, "contingent convertibles,"/cut (or pare) something to the bone

Why does Ushpiz reorder Arendt’s sentences without alerting us to the change? Why does she change “fortuitousness” to “random nature”? And why does she change Arendt’s phrase “totalitarian movements conjure up a lying world of consistency” — one of the most iconic and felicitous of Arendt’s many quotable aphorisms — to read “totalitarian movements conjure up a false ideological and consistent world”?

For decades, Mexicans have been the largest contingent in America’s 41.3m foreign-born population. But the annual inflow has slowed dramatically. In 2013 Mexico was overtaken as the biggest source of new migrants by both China and India
 RBS to move to London if Scotland breaks away

Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) has said it will move its registered office to
England if Scotland votes for independence next week. RBS is the second big
British bank to announce post-referendum contingency plans.
Quotation of the Day: "We didn’t cut to the bone. We cut into the bone." — Audra Ritter, a middle school teacher in Coatesville, Pa., which has cut close to one-fifth of its school district staff.
French Court Allows Auction of Hopi Artifacts
A French judge on Friday rejected a challenge by the Hopi tribe of northeastern Arizona, despite the group’s contention that the artifacts were sacred, communally owned objects.

...counteract the impression of the merely fortuitous and the contingent.

 Why is South China Sea such a bone of contention?

According to Meredith Broadbent of the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC, there is a “fortuitous window” for Japan to join the talks now. She does not think Americans are inclined to concentrate on trade issues during the presidential election campaign in 2012. After the election, whoever wins would be able to win support for a deal with the TPP. However trade with Japan has long been a bone of contention in America; some of its top trade negotiators cut their teeth battling for access to Japan’s markets in the 1980s. Japan’s participation in TPP talks could push it up America’s political agenda, unhelpfully.

A new breed of bank debt that turns into equity if a lender hits trouble is becoming the instrument of choice for some Southern European governments as they prop up their ailing banks.
The instruments, known as "contingent convertibles," began to get attention following the financial crisis and have been issued by a few banks. "Co-cos," as they are called, are sold as interest-bearing debt that has to be paid back. But they convert to equity in the event that a bank's capital ratios fall below certain levels.

contingentThe Uighur workers have since been sequestered at an industrial park not far from the toy factory. Officials refused to allow a reporter access to the workers, and a large contingent of police officers blocked the hospital rooms where two dozen others were recovering from their wounds.

General Motors
announced Tuesday that it had reached a tentative agreement to sell its Swedish unit, Saab Automobile, to a consortium led by Koenigsegg Automotive.

Koenigsegg, an unlisted company of just 45 employees based in Angelholm, Sweden, turns out just a few "supercars" -- high-performance sports cars costing more than $1 million each -- per year.

The companies said they had signed a memorandum of understanding, contingent on $600 million of financing from the European Investment Bank that is to be guaranteed by the Swedish government. They did not release further financial details, but Saab has said it would need about $1 billion to upgrade its operations.

Go to Article from The New York Times»

…all the cultural centers of Europe and America had contingents at least as large. Every artist who hoped to exhibit or obtain an agent must give an account of his aims and justify his special brand of vision and method.

cut (or pare) something to the bone

reduce something to the bare minimum:costs will have to be cut to the bone


  • 発音記号[fɔːrtjúːətəs | -tjúː-]

1 ((形式))偶発性の, 偶然の(accidental)
a fortuitous meeting
2 幸運な.
[ラテン語fortuitus (forte偶然に+-OUS)]


Pronunciation: /fɔːˈtjuːɪtəs/ 


1Happening by chance rather than intention:the similarity between the paintings may not be simply fortuitous
1.1Happening by a lucky chance; fortunate:the ball went into the goal by a fortuitous ricochet


The traditional, etymological meaning of fortuitous is ‘happening by chance’: a fortuitousmeeting is a chance meeting, which might turn out to be either a good thing or a bad thing. Today, however, fortuitous tends to be often used to refer only to fortunate outcomes and the word has become more or less a synonym for ‘lucky’ or ‘fortunate’ ( the ball went into the goal by a fortuitous ricochet). Although this usage is now widespread, it is still regarded by some people as incorrect.



Pronunciation: /fɔːˈtjuːɪtəsnəs/  

contin gent
━━ n. contingency; 派遣団 , 分遣隊.

  1. An event or condition that is likely but not inevitable.
  2. A share or quota, as of troops, contributed to a general effort.
  3. A representative group forming part of an assemblage.

contingent (GROUP) Show phonetics
group noun [C]
a group of people representing an organization or country, or a part of a military force:
The French contingent certainly made their presence known at this year's conference.
a large contingent of voluntary soldiers

contingent (DEPENDING) Show phonetics
adjective FORMAL
contingent on/upon sth depending on something else in the future in order to happen:
Outdoor arrangements are, as ever, contingent on the weather and we have other plans in the event of rain.
Our success is contingent upon your support.

con·tin·gent (kən-tĭn'jənt) pronunciation
  1. Liable to occur but not with certainty; possible: "All salaries are reckoned on contingent as well as on actual services" (Ralph Waldo Emerson).
  2. Dependent on conditions or occurrences not yet established; conditional: arms sales contingent on the approval of Congress. See synonyms at dependent.
  3. Happening by chance or accident; fortuitous. See synonyms at accidental.
  4. Logic. True only under certain conditions; not necessarily or universally true: a contingent proposition.
  1. An event or condition that is likely but not inevitable.
  2. A share or quota, as of troops, contributed to a general effort.
  3. A representative group forming part of an assemblage.代表團
[Middle English, from Latin contingēns, contingent-, present participle of contingere, to touch. See contact.]


音節con・tin・gent 発音記号/kəntíndʒənt/音声を聞く
【叙述的用法の形容詞】 〔不確定のこと,こっていないことに左右されて,〔…〕次第で,〔…を〕条件としてon,upon〕.
a fee [remuneration] contingent on [upon] success 成功報酬.
contingent expenses 臨時費.
a contingent event 不測の事件.
(集会などへの)代表団派遣団 《★【用法】 1a と同じ》.

  • 1heated disagreement:the captured territory was one of the main areas of contention between the two countries
  • 2an assertion, especially one maintained in argument:statistics bear out his contention that many runners are undertrained for this event

in contention

having a good chance of success in a contest:he was in contention for the batting title in September


late Middle English: from Latin contentio(n-), from contendere 'strive with' (see contend)

bone of contention
  1. The subject of a dispute.

bone of contention (plural bones of contention)
  1. (idiomatic) Something that continues to be disputed; something on which no agreement can be reached
    It is still a bone of contention whether to go ahead with the original plan in light of the new evidence.


  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[kənténʃən]

1 [U]争い, 闘争, けんか;競争
a bone of contention
争いのもと, 不和の種
be in contention forto win] a title
2 [U][C]論争, 口論, 論戦;(論争の)主張;(…という)論旨, 論点((that節)).