2016年1月28日 星期四

twins, cleavage, fair to middling, cerebral palsy, keep vow

Critics in the Russian media respond with praise, amusement and raised…
Edwin Morales, 53, near the coffin of his wife, Noemi, at a funeral home in Manhattan on Thursday.
Librado Romero/The New York Times
About New York

Bonded by Disability, a Couple Keeps Vows

Edwin Morales, at right, and Noemi Rivera, who both had cerebral palsy, eloped in 1996. On Thursday, Mr. Morales buried his wife, proud of keeping his vows to her.

Fair to middling

Mediocre, pretty good, so-so, as in I asked them how they liked their new home and John answered, "Fair to middling. This phrase, often a reply to an inquiry about one's health, business, or the like, is redundant, since fair and middling both mean "moderately good." [Mid-1800s] Also see can't complain.

Twins are helpful to researchers studying heritable disorders like autism because they often highlight the roles genetics and the environment play in a child’s development. Identical twins share nearly 100 percent of their genes, and fraternal twins share about half their genes. If raised together, both kinds of twins are usually exposed to similar environments during childhood.

Twins are of two types: monovular (identical), from the union of one sperm and one ovum, and binovular (non-identical) resulting from the fertilization of two separate ova. The cell produced by fertilization is called a zygote (from the Greek for ‘yoked’), so they are also known as monozygotic and dizygotic. Dizygotic twins are physically and genetically as dissimilar as any siblings. Monozygotic twins, having resulted from the cleavage of a single ‘conceptus’ — the splitting and separation of an early embryo — are therefore, with rare exceptions, genetically identical.

The incidence of multiple pregnancies varies in different racial groups. To quote ‘Hellin's law’ (1895): ‘twins occur in 1/89 births, triplets 1/ (89) 2, quadruplets 1/(89) 3 and so on’. The formula is roughly correct, although twins occur in Caucasians 1/80 to 1/90, in Asiatics 1/150 or less, and black Africans 1/50 with the highest incidence of twinning amongst the Yoruba people of Nigeria for whom 1 in 25 births are of twins. It is the rate of non-identical (dizygotic) twinning that varies around the world: identical (monozygotic) twins occur at a similar rate of 1 in 300 births in all populations. These statistics are based on clinical findings in viable pregnancies. However the initial ‘hidden’ twinning rate is probably higher: with increasing use of ultrasound in early pregnancy it is found that before 12 weeks one of the twins may die and be absorbed leaving an apparent singleton. In Australia the rate of twinning has increased approximately 25% over the past 20 years, partly due to a significant increase in the percentage of births to women aged 35 and over, and partly to the treatment of infertility by ovulation stimulation or assisted conception by gamete intra-fallopian transfer (GIFT) or in-vitro fertilization (IVF).

Twin pregnancy is more prone to complication than single pregnancies and possible hazards of premature birth and poor growth in the womb necessitate increased antenatal surveillance. If twins are identical and they share a single placenta, one baby can steal blood from the other, causing a condition known as ‘Twin- twin transfusion syndrome’.

Multiple pregnancies carry a greater risk of losing a baby before, during, or after birth than singleton pregnancies: multiple pregnancies overall account for more than 10% of all perinatal deaths; the greater the number, the greater the risk. Cerebral palsy in survivors is six times more common in twins than singletons.

The birth of twins has been a source of fascination in many cultures throughout history and the twin image has been incorporated in myths, folklore, and religions. The Old Testament of the Bible tells of Isaac's wife, Rebekah, who eventually conceived after nineteen years of marriage. Twin boys were born. The first was red and hairy, and he was named Esau, meaning ‘red’. His brother was born holding Esau's heel and so he was called Jacob, meaning ‘he who grasps the heel’. Ancient Rome was founded, according to legend by Romulus and Remus, the twin progeny of Mars, god of war, and a mortal princess. In some African communities, twins were regarded with great favour; in others, with great suspicion. The Yoruba in Nigeria were well aware of the high mortality associated with twinning in the past, and they made small wooden sculptures, ‘ibeji’ that had spiritual significance if one of twins died.
— Jim Neilson

  1. 1.
    a sharp division; a split.
    "the old cleavage between the forces of the right and left"
  2. 2.
    the hollow between a woman's breasts when supported, especially as exposed by a low-cut garment.
    "Holly and Bridget checked their cleavages and rearranged their hair"


  • 発音記号[pɔ'ːlzi]

1 [U](軽度の)不全, 麻痺(まひ);しびれ.
2 麻痺の原因;((比喩))麻痺状態.
[中フランス語←ラテン語. △PARALYSIS
[形]麻痺した, 中風の.

cerebral palsy


  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[səríːbrəl, sérə- | sérə-]

1 ((限定))《解剖学・動物学》(大)脳の
cerebral hemorrhage
cerebral death
脳死(brain death)
cerebral cortex
cerebral hemisphere
2 知性[理性]に訴える, 知的な, 頭を使う
a cerebral task

無料で英語力アップ! オンラインで英語圏の友達作り。
ワールドビジネスサテライト 産経新聞などでも紹介された英会話
ラウンド中の会話に乗り遅れない 台湾駐在員の情報インフラです
  • すべて
  • 国語
  • 類語
  • 英和
  • 和英
  • 中日
  • 日中


  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[váu]

[名](…という)誓い, 誓約((of ..., to do));(神に対してたてた)誓い, 願(がん)
matrimonial [marriage] vows
a vow of poverty
a vow of silence
trade vows of friendship
be under a vow to drink no alcohol
make [take] a vow to give up smoking
break [keep] a vow
perform a vow
take vows
1 ((主に文))…を誓う;…を(神などに)誓う((to ...));[III to do/that節]〈…することを〉誓う;〈…ということを〉断言[明言]する
vow revenge
They vowed to God that they would raise a cathedral there.
He vowed never to become a despot.
2 ((形式))…を(…に)誓いをたててささげる((to ...))
vow oneself to the service of the nation
━━(自)誓う, 誓約する.
I vow
((古))確かに, きっと, まったく.
I vow I am afraid.
vow and declare
((古))誓って言う, 断言する.