2016年9月1日 星期四

merit, grace, infuse, infusion, leaf through, leaf goodness, theanine

merit :功勞;功德;功績:行善者應得報酬之名分;神學上通常分為兩種: (1) 義理功勞 merit de condigno ,指狹義的功勞,即功勞與報酬旗鼓相當,譬如做多少工,就給多少工資。 (2) 情誼功勞 merit de congruo ,指廣義的功勞,即功勞與酬報並不完全相稱,靠付款者(賞報者)慈悲或承諾,譬如發給員工獎金多寡不一。
meritorious works :善功;善工。

gratia L. :聖寵。同 grace

grace :聖寵;恩寵;恩典:上主賜與世人的恩惠,尤其經由聖事和祈禱而賜與,使人不僅死後可享永生,即使在今生,也能更自由地,以信心、以希望、以愛情歡度現世的生活(參閱法典 840 844 961 )。
grace, actual :寵佑;助力聖寵;現時恩寵;助人為善的聖寵:指人在皈依的開始,或在聖化的過程中,來自天主的助佑,是天主所賜的超性神恩,開導人的理智好能分辨是非、善惡,感動人的意志以便行善避惡。
grace, efficacious :實效聖寵;有效聖寵:在靈魂上能發揮功效的聖寵。
grace, habitual :寵愛;常存聖寵:是恒常的向善傾向,使人依照天主的召喚而生活和行動;是天主賜給沒有大罪的善人之超性生命,得以分享天主的生命,成為天主的義子義女,蒙天主鍾愛。又稱聖化聖寵 grace, sanctifying
Grace, His :閣下:英國基督徒對總主教的尊稱;第三人稱。美國用 His Excellency
grace, illuminating :神光:寵佑之一種,使人頭腦清醒,易於行善。
grace, sacramental :聖事聖寵:領受聖事時,聖事本身所賜予之恩(聖)寵。
grace, sanctifying :寵愛;聖化聖寵。詳見 grace, habitual
Grace, Your :閣下:英國基督徒對總主教的尊稱;第二人稱。美國用 Your Excellency
grace after meals :飯後經:基督徒用飯後的感恩祈禱文。
grace at meals :飯經;膳時致謝;謝飯禱告:基督徒飯前、飯後習慣誦念的禱詞。
grace before meals :飯前經;謝飯禱告:基督徒用飯前的感恩祈禱文。
Justification by grace comprises four elements: "the infusion of grace, the influencing of free will toward God through faith, the influencing of free will respecting sin, and the remission of sins". It is a "transmutation of the human soul", and takes place "instantaneously". A creative act of God enters, which, however, executes itself as a spiritual motive in a psychological form corresponding to the nature of man. Semipelagian tendencies are far removed from Aquinas. In that man is created anew he believes and loves, and now sin is forgiven. Then begins good conduct; grace is the "beginning of meritorious works". Aquinas conceives of merit in the Augustinian sense: God gives the reward for that toward which he himself gives the power. Man can never of himself deserve the prima gratis, nor meritum de congruo (by natural ability; cf. R. Seeberg, Lehrbuch der Dogmengeschichte, ii. 105-106, Leipsic, 1898).


(leaf through) turn over (the pages of a book or the papers in a pile), reading them quickly or casually: he leafed through the stack of notesMore example sentences
  • You can turn the pages as though leafing through the book.
  • Next to that is another device - a page turner that automatically leafs through any book placed on a raised platform, operated at the touch of a button.
  • He approached it on tip toes, leafing through a pile of papers on the surface.

---Lipton Yellow Label Tea
Delicious infusion of leaf goodness, theanine.

Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping). An infusion is also the name for the resultant liquid. The process of infusion is distinct from decoction, which involves boiling the plant material, or percolation, in which the water passes through the material (as in a coffeemaker).

茶氨酸(L-Theanine)是茶葉中特有的遊離胺基酸,茶氨酸是谷氨酸γ-乙基醯胺,有甜昧。茶氨酸含量因茶的品種、部位而變動。茶氨酸在干茶中占重量的1%-2%。


Theanine (pronounced /ˈθiːəniːn/; gamma-glutamylethylamide, or 5-N-ethyl-glutamine) is a glutamic acid analog or amino acid derivative commonly found in tea (infusions of Camellia sinensis), primarily in green tea,[1] and also in the basidiomycete mushroom Boletus badius.[2] More specifically, this compound is called L-theanine, being the levorotary enantiomer. In 1950, the tea laboratory of Kyoto successfully separated theanine from gyokuro leaf, which has the highest theanine content among all teas. Theanine is an analog to glutamine and glutamate, and can cross the blood-brain barrier.[3] It is sold in the US as a dietary supplement, and is FDA confirmed as Generally recognized as safe (GRAS).[4] The Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare approved the use of theanine for universal consumption in 1964.[5]


Rooibos, (pronounced /ˈrɔɪbɒs/, like "roy-boss"), Afrikaans for "red bush"scientific name Aspalathus linearis) is a broom-like member of the legume family of plants. The plant is used to make a "tea" infusion.
A rooibos infusion is called rooibos teabush tea (esp. southern Africa), redbush tea (esp. UK), South African red tea (esp. USA), or red tea. The product has been popular in southern Africa for generations and is now consumed in many countries. It is sometimes spelled rooibosch in accordance with the Dutch etymology, but "roy-boss" remains the most common modern pronunciation.
Wikipedia article "Rooibos".

infuse
verb
1 [T + object + preposition] to fill someone or something with an emotion or quality:
The pulling down of the Berlin Wall infused the world with optimism.
The arrival of a group of friends on Saturday infused new life into the weekend.

2 [I or T] If you infuse a drink or it infuses, you leave substances such as tea leaves or herbs in hot water so that their flavour goes into the liquid:
Allow the tea to infuse for five minutes.

infusion 
noun [C or U]
when one thing is added to another to make it stronger or better:
An infusion of $100 000 into the company is required.
She drinks an infusion of herbs (= a drink made by leaving herbs in hot water).

infusion

[名]
1 [C][U](思想・感情などの)注入, 導入, 鼓吹((of ...)).
2 [C]注入[導入, 混入]物;混合物.
3 薬湯, 煎(せん)じ液, (水による生薬の)煎じ出し, 振り出し;浸剤.
4 《医学》注入(液), 注射.

infusion[名詞]1 (思想・感情などの)(…への)注入,導入,鼓吹((into ...)) the infusion of a sense of responsibility into a person...英和大辞典
infusion《名詞》(1)注入;浸出 (2)【医学】点滴;注入物;浸出液
infusion煎薬
infusion注入投与
infusion注入薬液
infusion輸注



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