2016年4月16日 星期六

onus, the die is cast, diminimus, proper, amps up, Rubicon, Thames, throw in [cast] one's lot with ...

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According to Suetonius, Caesar uttered the famous phrase ālea iacta est ("the die has been cast").[1] The phrase "crossing the Rubicon" has survived to refer to any individual or group committing itself irrevocably to a risky or revolutionary course of action, similar to the modern phrase "passing the point of no return". 

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Yang said Tuesday that Beijing and Washington need to build more trust, though he suggested the onus is on the US to respect Chinese interests on issues such as Taiwan and Tibet.

‪#‎onthisday‬ in 49 BC: Julius Caesar and his army crossed the Rubicon into Italy on their way to Rome. This was considered an act of insurrection and treason, as the Rubicon River marked the division between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul and Italy proper (controlled directly by Rome). The historian Suetonius reported that Caesar uttered the famous phrase ‘alea iacta est’ meaning ‘the die is cast’ – the idiom ‘crossing the Rubicon’ now means to pass a point of no return. Caesar was to be victorious in the civil war that followed. Here’s a later imagining of this historic moment – an 1806 print based on a work by Henry Fuseli http://ow.ly/GQeaG

Daily Highlights Saturday, January 10, 2008
Julius Caesar          
Julius Caesar
The Rubicon is a small, reddish river in north-central Italy that spills into the Adriatic. It would still be meandering in obscurity had Julius Caesar not decided to cross it with his army on this date in 49 BCE. What made his decision noteworthy was the fact that the Rubicon was the border between his province, Cisalpine Gaul, where he was allowed to have an army, and Italy, where he wasn't — so his crossing the river was in effect the declaration of a civil war within the Roman Republic (which he won). To cross the Rubicon now means to take a fateful, irreversible step. Other river-based idioms are to swim the Tiber, meaning to convert to Roman Catholicism, and its converse, to swim the Thames — to convert to Anglicanism.

Health Plans Put Onus on Insured

Let the patient beware. Going outside your insurer’s network of preferred doctors or hospitals could be more hazardous to your financial health than you suspected.




  1. A difficult or disagreeable responsibility or necessity; a burden or obligation.
    1. A stigma.
    2. Blame.
  2. The burden of proof: The onus was on the defense attorney.
━━ n. (the ~) 責任 ((of)); 重荷; 非難.

Onus, from Latin, indicates accountability/responsibility.

the die is cast
said when a situation is certain to develop in a particular way because decisions have been taken which cannot be changed:
From the moment the negotiations failed, the die was cast and war was inevitable.
"Ālea iacta est" (the die is cast) — Julius Caesar upon crossing the Rubicon

E-Mailapropism By CHARLTON REYNDERS JR. June 26, 2005

'\'De minimis non curat lex.\'\' (Loosely translated, \'\'The law does not care about trifles.\'\')。
這是兩周前「周日紐約時報」的Language 專文談的。它說現在時興「罵」某事無關緊要的用語;
diminimus,【diminimus, thus spelled, most often, and pronounced akin to \'\'diminish us.\'\'】,其原本為「法律不管雞毛蒜皮的事」。

Some two thousand years ago, Caesar went and observed and overcame and then rummaged in his supply train for noun cases, looking in particular for the ablative (Latin, of course, had more ablatives than Jupiter has moons) -- only to discover that they had been left behind, beyond the Rubicon. Thus were the conquered northern tribes spared the necessity of declining their nouns.

【adj. - 奪格的 n. - 奪格。日本語 (Japanese) adj. - 奪格のn. - 奪格, 奪格語ablative (ăb\'lətĭv\') [Lat.,=carrying off], in Latin grammar, the case used in a number of circumstances, particularly with certain prepositions and in locating place or time. The term is also used in the grammar of some languages ( e.g., Sanskrit, Finnish) for a case of separation, e.g., "from the house."】
Question of the Day

What are five interesting facts about Julius Caesar?
  • He was captured by pirates on his way to Rhodes
  • He was known as one of the greatest men of all time
  • He was stabbed to death by a group of men, led by Brutus
  • When he came to Britian he wrote a book about what he saw in his time here
  • He conquered the whole of Gaul. (Now known as France.)

amp up
Generally, an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes, usually increases, the amplitude of a signal. The relationship of the input to the output of an amplifier—usually expressed as a function of the input frequency—is called the transfer function of the amplifier, and the magnitude of the transfer function is termed the gain.


  • レベル:最重要
  • 発音記号[lɑ't | lɔ't]

(1) [a lot (of A)/lots (of A)]((略式))たくさん, どっさり(のA(人・物)). ▼ふつう肯定文で可算名詞にも不可算名詞にも用いる;またlots (of A)はa lot (of A)よりさらに口語的;意味を強めるときはa whole lot (of A)をよく用いる
a lot of fruit
Lots of money doesn't always make us happy.
金がどっさりあれば幸せとは限らない(▼lots ofに不可算名詞が続くとき動詞は単数呼応)
What a lot of people there are!
なんてたくさんの人だろう(▼感嘆文ではlots ofよりa lot ofがふつう)
There was a lot of truth in what she said.
I have an awful lot to do.
(2) ((the 〜))((主に英))(…の)すべて, 全部, いっさいがっさい((of ...))
the whole lot of us
That's the lot.
[語法]否定文, 疑問文ではmany, muchが好まれる. a lot ofの代わりにlotta, lotter, またlots ofの代わりにlotsaとも書く.
2 (商品・競売品などの)一組, 一山, 一口, (競売品の)品目番号, ロット番号;((集合的))((英略式))(同種の人・物の)群れ, 連中, 組
sell one dollar a lot
3 ((主に米))(土地・都市などの)一区画;(特定用途の)土地, 用地, 敷地;《映画》撮影所, (特に)スタジオ
a parking lot
a vacant lot
house and lot
4 (定められた)運, 運命, 宿命
be resigned to one's lot
It fell to his lot [=The lot fell to him] to die for his country.
5 ((主に英略式))やつ;しろもの
a bad lot
6 [U]くじ引き, 抽選;[C]くじ, くじによる決定[選定], 当たりくじ
draw [cast] lots
He was chosen by lot.
The lot fell on [to] me.
7 分け前, 割り当て
I received my lot of the money.
have neither part nor lot in ...
8 [U]((主に英))税, 課税.
give a lot to do
throw in [cast] one's lot with ...
…と同盟[連合, 縁組み]する;…と運命を共にする.
━━[副]((a 〜, 〜s))((動詞・形容詞および副詞の比較級を修飾して))((略式))大いに, とても, ずっと;しばしば
a lot more [worse]
Thanks a lot.
He seems lots better.
━━[動](〜・ted, 〜・ting)(他)
1 〈商品などを〉(一山・一口単位で)分ける, 仕分けする, 配分する((out)).
2 …を割り当てる, 分配する
lot one's property between ...
3 …をくじ引きで決める.
4 〈土地を〉区画に分ける((out)).
━━(自)くじを引く, くじ引きで決める.