2016年7月3日 星期日

surgeon, high heel, podiatric, 'Food Surgeon' , malaria, circadian rhythm, chiropodists

"Had the high heel never bulldozed its way back into popularity, in the 1950s, thanks to designers like Dior, who never suffered a woman’s social mandate of daily wear, I wouldn’t be visiting a pricey podiatrist."


Oh, womenfolk, as we once burned our bras, could we not torch the footwear crucifying us?
NYER.CM|由 MARY KARR 上傳

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The Food Surgeon, a channel on YouTube, turns a camera and a doctor's…
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Surgeons 'seek to protect title'
Surgeon with scalpel Not all surgeons have undergone the same training
Related Stories
Leading doctors are calling on the government to legally protect the title "surgeon".
A Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) poll of 2,000 people found 95% expect someone using the title "surgeon" to be medically qualified.
There are no restrictions on who can use the title - but the RCS wants only those with a medical degree and surgical training to be able to do so.

But others who use the title defended their right to do so.
It takes around 16 years of training and experience for surgeons to reach consultant level.

Those who the RCS feels should not use the title include podiatric surgeons, who do not complete medical degrees but are trained in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of the foot.

But a spokesman for the Institute of Chiropodists and Podiatrists, which represents podiatric surgeons, defended the use of the title.

"Podiatric surgeons are specialist foot surgeons who have trained exclusively for up to 12 years in the surgical and non-surgical treatment of the foot and associated structures.

He said they develop "highly skilled and meticulous surgical techniques", and had to undergo six years of podiatric medicine training before completing a masters in podiatric surgery in order to qualify for the title.

'Patient protection' Another group the RCS feels should not use the title surgeon are "aesthetic surgeons", who may not have a medical degree or undertaken specialist training.


“Start Quote

Currently patients are being left in the dark”
Sue Woodward, RCS
The British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (BAAPS), whose members are fully qualified, backed the RCS.

It said it wanted to "draw a line in the sand".
BAAPS president Mr Fazel Fatah said: "The public has been misled and cheated for too long by practitioners falsely claiming to be surgeons, without having the training and qualifications required.
"The issue is at the very centre of patient protection and the public deserve the peace of mind that doctors who carry out surgery are qualified and trained for that purpose."
The college said its poll showed 92% thought use of the title should be protected in law.
Sue Woodward, chairwoman of the patient group at the RCS, said: "Currently patients are being left in the dark and cannot make informed decisions about their treatment.
"The law must be changed so only those who have undertaken the extensive medical training it takes to become a surgeon can use this title.
"This will avoid patients misunderstanding the qualification of the person treating them in the future."
Prof Norman Williams, president of the RCS, said: "It is extremely worrying that in the health sector clarity regarding job titles is lacking.
"Patients undergoing treatment have a right to know the credentials of the person to whom they are entrusting their safety.
"The law can be very strict in protecting working titles and we believe the same legal cover should be extended to the title surgeon."
A spokesperson at the Department of Health said: "We would expect employers to make sure that job titles are not misleading to the public.
"People may reasonably expect that someone who describes themselves as a surgeon is a registered doctor. We will always keep issues like this under review.
"The Department of Health is fully supportive of podiatrists who have undergone the appropriate training performing surgery of the foot and ankle.
"These professionals are regulated by the Health Professions Council (HPC) to ensure that they deliver high quality care for patients."


Light hitting the retina suppresses the production of melatonin — and there lies the rub. In this modern world, our eyes are flooded with light well after dusk, contrary to our evolutionary programming. Scientists are just beginning to understand the potential health consequences. The disruption of circadian cycles may not just be shortchanging our sleep, they have found, but also contributing to a host of diseases.

malaria
(mə-lâr'ē-ə) pronunciation

n.
  1. An infectious disease characterized by cycles of chills, fever, and sweating, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium in red blood cells, which is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito.
  2. Archaic. Bad or foul air; miasma.
[Italian, from mala aria, bad air : mala, feminine of malo, bad (from Latin malus) + aria, air (from Latin āēr , from Greek).]
n.an intermittent and remittent fever caused by a protozoan parasite that invades the red blood cells. The parasite is transmitted by mosquitoes in many tropical and subtropical regions.
malarial adj.
Etymology: mid 18th cent.: from Italian, from mal'aria, contracted form of mala aria ‘bad air.’ The term originally denoted the unwholesome atmosphere caused by the exhalations of marshes, to which the disease was formerly attributed.


^
"Ross and the Discovery that Mosquitoes Transmit Malaria Parasites". CDC Malaria website. Archived from the original on June 2, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070602185153/http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/history/ross.htm. Retrieved 2007-06-15.



malarial ma·lar'i·al or ma·lar'i·an or ma·lar'i·ous adj.
Cinchona bark, used to treat malaria, was brought to Europe in the 1630s from Peru, and by the eighteenth century was widely used, although often incorrectly. Well into the nineteenth century, American doctors also relied on bloodletting and cathartics. The isolation of quinine by French chemists in 1820 made treatment more practicable, and from the 1850s, quinine was also used to prevent malaria from developing. In 1880 a French army surgeon, Alphonse Laveran, demonstrated the parasitic cause of the disease in the blood of humans. Dr. A. F. A. King of Washington, D.C., correctly speculated on its transmission by mosquito in 1882, and William George MacCollum added significantly to knowledge of the complex life history of the plasmodium in 1897. British physician Ronald Ross made the crucial demonstration of mosquito transmission in 1898. Using anti-mosquito measures and prophylactic quinine, William C. Gorgas in 1901 initiated a campaign that reduced the malaria rate in Havana from 909 per 1,000 in 1899 to 19 per 1,000 in 1908. Later he obtained comparable results in the Canal Zone, which made possible the building of the Panama Canal.


English


瘧疾患者多呈現高熱發燒癥狀,由於早期跡象與流行性感冒有 相似之處,許多對該疾病不熟悉的外來旅遊者容易將瘧疾誤認為感冒,從而因為沒有得到及時的藥物治療而使得病情惡化。瘧原蟲生活周期具有很明顯的生理節奏 (circadian rhythm),這使得病患的發燒癥狀呈現周期性反覆的特徵。舉例來說,因為間日瘧原蟲(Plasmodium vivax)導致的瘧疾發熱周期為48小時。
瘧疾患者常有的其他癥狀包括:瘧原性貧血,酸毒症,呼吸窘迫等等。如果瘧原蟲侵入腦部血管,則會導致最為嚴重的腦部瘧疾,這通常會造成病者昏迷。
按照瘧疾病徵的嚴重程度不同,瘧疾可以分為非重症瘧疾(uncomplicated malaria)和重症瘧疾(complicated / severe malaria),能有效治療這兩類瘧疾的藥物不太相同。
如果沒有得到及時和有效的治療,瘧疾患者的死亡率會非常高。這也是非洲瘧疾肆虐的主要原因之一,由於戰亂和經濟發展問題,處於疫區的非洲國家公共衛生和醫療狀況通常非常惡劣,這使得這些地方瘧疾的感染和死亡率一直居高不下。

病源


瘧疾疫區,1996年。[1]
高危險 中危險 低危險 極低危險 無危險
瘧疾的致病源是瘧原蟲(瘧原蟲屬,Plasmodium spp.),這是一類單細胞真核生物,屬於細胞內寄生蟲,它們以瘧蚊蚊子的其中一個屬,瘧蚊屬的部分種類)作為傳病媒介,通過雌蚊叮咬吸血來傳播病原體。
瘧原蟲屬生物是頂複合器門(Apicomplexa)的原生生物,這一門的生物幾乎都是寄生蟲。大部分脊椎動物都可以作為瘧原蟲的主要宿主,比如齧齒動物,蝙蝠,蜥蜴,鳥等等。這也使得生物學家可以通過建立生物模型(比方說,用老鼠做瘧疾病理研究)的方式來研究人類瘧疾。
只有四種瘧原蟲能夠感染人類,這包括惡性瘧原蟲(Plasmodium falciparum)、三日瘧原蟲(Plasmodium malariae)、蛋形瘧原蟲(Plasmodium ovale)及間日瘧原蟲(Plasmodium vivax)。其中惡性瘧原蟲是非洲流行瘧疾的主要病原體,亦是造成患者死亡率最高的瘧原蟲。
瘧原蟲的生命周期很複雜。瘧原蟲通過蚊子叮咬進入宿主體內後首先侵入肝臟細胞,再由肝臟進入血液感染紅血球,在紅血球內無性繁殖擴增之後,受外部環境因素的影響,它們可以繼續感染新的紅血球,也可能形成配子體(gametocyte),當蚊子吸取受感染的血液後,雄,雌配子體進入蚊子胃內發育成配子並進行有性繁殖,合子最終在胃壁下形成卵囊(oocyte)。卵囊中瘧原蟲進行無性繁殖,最終形成孢子體(sporozoite)進入蚊子唾液腺,準備感染新的脊椎動物宿主。
根據瘧原蟲所處的環境和自身形態的不同,瘧原蟲的生命周期可以大致分為三個階段:
1 紅血球外階段(Pre-erythrocytic stage):從寄生蟲的孢子體進入宿主體內到其侵入紅血球為止,這一階段患者無明顯癥狀。
2 無性血內階段(Asexual blood stage):寄生蟲在紅血球內不斷擴殖,這一階段病人呈現顯著的瘧疾臨床癥狀。由於瘧原蟲具有很明顯的生理節奏,每隔一定的時間所有寄生在紅血球中的寄 生蟲就會一同離開受感染細胞,尋找新的宿主細胞,這是造成瘧疾患者高燒具有周期性的主要原因。另外,瘧原蟲可以改造受感染細胞的表面蛋白結構,使之可以貼 附在血管內壁表面,免於受感染細胞在經過脾臟時受宿主免疫系統攻擊而死亡。這一行為能夠造成微細血管的阻塞,如果阻塞發生在腦部血管,患者很容易陷入昏迷 狀態。
3有性繁殖階段(Sexual stage),瘧原蟲在紅血球內形成配子體,進而經蚊子吸食血液進入蚊子體內完成有性繁殖,再由蚊子叮咬進入新的宿主。對疾病傳播的控制主要針對的就是這一階段。

circadian

(sər-kā'dē-ən, -kăd'ē-, sûr'kə-dī'ən, -dē'-) pronunciation
adj. Biology
Relating to or exhibiting approximately 24-hour periodicity.

[Latin circā, around; see circa + Latin diēs, day.]
circadianly cir·ca'di·an·ly adv.




surgeon[sur・geon]

  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • 発音記号[sə'ːrdʒən]
[名]n. - 外科醫生 idioms:
  • surgeon fish    熱帶魚的一種
  • surgeon general    軍醫總監, 衛生局局長, 軍醫處處長
  • surgeon's knot    外科結
1 外科医. ⇒PHYSICIAN 1
2 軍医;船医.
[アングロフランス語←ギリシャ語cheirourgia (cheir手+ergein仕事する)]

podiatry[po・di・a・try]

  • 発音記号[pədáiətri]
[名][U]((米))足病学;足病治療(((英))chiropody).
po・di・a・trist
[名]

 (pə-dī'ə-trē) pronunciation
n.
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the human foot. Also called chiropody.

[Greek pous, pod-, foot + -IATRY.]
podiatric po'di·at'ric ('dē-ăt'rĭk) adj.
podiatrist po·di'a·trist n.
podiatric



chiropody[chi・rop・o・dy]

  • 発音記号[kirɑ'pədi | -rɔ'p-]
[名][U]((英))(うおのめなどの)足治療(((米))podiatry).
-dist
[名]足治療医.

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