2016年10月1日 星期六

gripe, extend, to cradle, cradle-to-cradle, buyer's remorse

The intense workload is not just bad news for teachers: schools are finding it increasingly difficult to recruit them

Marking time nearly doubled from 2010 to 2013

Walt Mossberg: The Steve Jobs I Knew
Journal columnist Walt Mossberg shares his personal memories of Steve Jobs, from their late-night gripe sessions to one final walk together.

In agricultural towns like Boston, in Lincolnshire, immigration is voters' biggest gripe. UKIP has benefited from this http://econ.st/1JNzsdO
An artificial intelligence service that automatically resolves consumers disputes and can even engage in negotiations was displayed at Le Web on Wednesday.
Both Houses of Congress Try to Extend Dialogue
House Republicans were expected to hold a meeting Saturday as the Senate planned to vote on a Democratic proposal to extend the debt ceiling.
誰生產誰負責 廠商必須面對的「延伸責任」

Royal Couple Make First Appearance With Son
The Duchess of Cambridge and Prince William took turns cradling the newest royal heir in their arms to the screaming delight of onlookers.

作者:經濟學人  出處:天下雜誌 444期 2010/04

這種稱為「生產者延伸責任」(extended producer responsibility,EPR)的立法,以往多半針對輪胎、電子等特定產品,但美國緬因州更進一步,在三月底簽署新法,成為全美第一個實施概括性EPR(範圍可能涵蓋所有產品)的州政府。
但也有製造商、零售商自動推出回收計劃,例如惠普就宣稱它的產品設計符合「從搖籃到搖籃」(cradle-to-cradle)理念,可以循環利用。史泰博(Staples)與家得寶(Home Depot)也自行推動電腦、燈泡與電池的回收。

Extended producer responsibility spreads
Governments oblige manufacturers to take back used goods for disposal
FOR seasoned shoppers, "buyer's remorse" is a familiar feeling. "Seller's remorse" may also become common soon, as ever more governments order manufacturers to assume the cost of disposing of their products after consumers are done with them. Until recently, most laws on "extended producer responsibility" (EPR) or "product stewardship" applied only to specific types of goods, such as car tyres or electronics. But in late March Maine, following the lead of several Canadian provinces, became the first American state to enact a blanket EPR law, which could in principle cover any product.
Governments are eager to unload some responsibility for waste management onto manufacturers, especially for products that are hard to recycle or may be toxic, such as electronics, batteries, paint, car parts and pesticide containers. It helps them cut costs, for one thing—handy for local authorities short of cash in the recession. In Maine, which has had an EPR law for electronic waste since 2004, municipalities save $1.5m-3m annually because manufacturers have picked up the cost of collection, according to the Natural Resources Council of Maine. Governments also hope that EPR laws will encourage firms to rethink the way they make products, designing them for longevity and recyclability rather than for the landfill.
Thirty-one of America's 50 states have product-specific EPR laws. The European Union requires manufacturers to dispose of packaging, electronics and vehicles. Canada and Japan also have EPR laws. Other countries, such as Australia, have flirted with the idea.
Maine's new "framework" law makes it much easier to expand the scope of EPR schemes, by establishing a process for adding products to the list of those covered without requiring a new law each time. The state government, which already enforces five product-specific EPR laws, is now said to have carpet-makers and drugs firms in its sights.
This worries businesses, few of which are eager to pick up the bill for waste disposal. Some business associations, such as the California Chamber of Commerce, have denounced EPR bills as "job killers". They point out that the increased costs are ultimately borne by consumers. But that does not worry supporters of EPR, who argue that the price of a product should reflect its full "life-cycle" costs, including disposal, rather than simply leaving taxpayers to make up the difference. Moreover, unless manufacturers are forced to bear the costs, they will have no incentive to make their wares easy to dispose of.
Scott Cassel, executive director of the Product Stewardship Institute, a non-profit organisation, says he has noticed different "stages of grief for companies" coping with the reality of EPR, starting with denial and moving to begrudging acceptance. Not all companies are mourning, however. Some manufacturers and retailers have voluntarily rolled out collection programmes in states that do not require them. Hewlett-Packard, a technology firm, claims to design its products with ease of recycling in mind—cradle-to-cradle, as the jargon has it. Staples, which sells office supplies, and Home Depot, a home-improvement retailer, both offer national take-back programmes in their stores for such items as computer monitors, compact fluorescent light bulbs and batteries. Such programmes may enhance customer loyalty, particularly among environmentally conscious consumers.

Some companies may also be hoping that starting their own collection programmes could help them pre-empt legislation. "We thought we could get out in front of this and set up a system to collect our products, and the exact opposite happened," says Doug Smith of Sony, an electronics giant. He does not believe EPR laws have much impact on product design.

Companies' biggest gripe about EPR laws is not their cost but their inconsistency. Few states have the same requirements, making compliance complicated for manufacturers. Many businesses would favour a national policy rather than a patchwork of local laws. EPR laws, it seems, are set to win extended responsibility themselves.


Syllabification: (ex·tend)
Pronunciation: /ikˈstend/


[with object]
  • 1 cause to cover a larger area; make longer or wider:the Forest Service plans to extend a gravel road nearly a mile
  • cause to last longer:high schools may consider extending the class day to seven periods
  • postpone (a starting or ending time) beyond the original limit:he extended the deadline to 4 p.m. today
  • straighten or spread out (the body or a limb) at full length:she is unable to extend her thumb
  • [no object] spread from a central point to cover a wider area:the pipeline currently extends 1,200 miles from Santa Barbara
  • [no object] occupy a specified area or stretch to a specified point:the mountains extend over the western end of the island a fault that may extend to a depth of 12 miles
  • [no object] (extend to) include within one’s scope; be applicable to:her generosity did not extend to all adults
  • 2 hold (something) out toward someone:I nod and extend my hand
  • offer or make available:she extended an invitation to her to stay I can’t extend credit indefinitely
  • 3 (extend oneself) exert or exercise oneself to the utmost:you have to extend yourself to change rather than keep on doing the same thing








Pronunciation: /-əbəl/


late Middle English: from Latin extendere 'stretch out', from ex- 'out' + tendere 'stretch'



  1. Informal. To complain naggingly or petulantly; grumble.
  2. To have sharp pains in the bowels.
  1. Informal. To irritate; annoy: Her petty complaints really gripe me.
  2. To cause sharp pain in the bowels of.
  3. To grasp; seize.
  4. To oppress or afflict.
  1. Informal. A complaint.
  2. gripes Sharp, spasmodic pains in the bowels.
  3. A firm hold; a grasp.
  4. A grip; a handle.
[Middle English gripen, to seize, from Old English grīpan.]
griper grip'er n.

  • 発音記号[gráip]

1 ((略式))(人に)不平を言う((at ...));(…のことで)ぐちをこぼす((about, over ...))
gripe about one's job
2 腹が痛む, 差し込む.
3 〈帆船が〉風上に向きがちである.
4 ((古))つかむ.
1 ((略式))…を苦しめる, 悩ます;いらだたせる;…をじらす;…をしいたげる;〈腹を〉きりきり痛ませる
What's griping you?
2 〈救命ボートを〉本船のデッキに索で固定する.
3 ((古))…をしっかり握る(grip).
gripe a person's ass [balls, butt, soul]
1 ((略式))不平, 苦情(を言うこと);((the 〜s))((米俗))ひとしきりの文句, 文句癖.
2 ((通例the 〜s))((古風))腹痛, 差し込み
gripe water
get the gripes
3 つかむもの;(機械の)爪(つめ), グリップ, クラッチ, ブレーキ;握り, 柄, 取っ手, つか.
4 ((古))支配, 統御;圧迫;苦しめる[悩ます]こと.
5 《海事》締め綱.

6 ((古))つかむ[握る]こと.

 (grīp) pronunciation

v., griped, grip·ing, gripes.
  1. Informal. To complain naggingly or petulantly; grumble.
  2. To have sharp pains in the bowels.
  1. Informal. To irritate; annoy: Her petty complaints really gripe me.
it’s no use griping about your boss or your pay[WITH DIRECT SPEECH]: ‘Holidays make no difference to Simon,’ Pat griped
  1. To cause sharp pain in the bowels of.
  2. To grasp; seize.
  3. To oppress or afflict.
  1. Informal. A complaint.
  2. gripes Sharp, spasmodic pains in the bowels.
  3. A firm hold; a grasp.
  4. A grip; a handle.
[Middle English gripen, to seize, from Old English grīpan.]
griper grip'er n.


Pronunciation: /ˈkreɪd(ə)l/


  • 1a baby’s bed or cot, typically one mounted on rockers: the baby slept peacefully in its cradle
  • (the cradle) infancy:the welfare state was set up to provide care from the cradle to the grave
  • (the cradle of) a place or process in which something originates or flourishes:the Middle East is generally held to be the cradle of agriculture
  • 2a framework resembling a cradle, in particular:
  • a framework on which a boat rests during construction or repairs.
  • British a framework on which a worker is suspended to work on a ceiling, ship, or the side of a high building.
  • the part of a telephone on which the receiver rests when not in use.


[with object]
  • 1hold gently and protectively:she cradled his head in her arms
  • figurative be the place of origin of:the north-eastern states cradled an American industrial revolution
  • 2place (a telephone receiver) in its cradle: she cradled the receiver gently


Old English cradol, of uncertain origin; perhaps related to German Kratte 'basket'