2016年9月17日 星期六

fidgety, satiety, obesity, fidget, sluice, walkway

PHYS ED
Why Fidgeting Is Good Medicine
By GRETCHEN REYNOLDS
A new study finds that toe-tapping, foot-wagging and other body movements help keep your blood flowing.

Judging Honesty by Words, Not Fidgets
By BENEDICT CAREY
Identifying the telling clues in the accounts of liars.

Inside Europe | 06.09.2008 | 07:05

Why going back to school is leaving a sweet taste in the mouth for French schoolchildren

In a country renowned for the thinness of its citizens and the high quality of its food, spiralling obesity rates came as a shock in France. So the French decided to do something about it and have recently reported a leveling off of childhood obesity, after two decades on the rise.

It is the first European country to show such a decline. The findings from two studies suggest that healthier school lunch programs and a ban on vending machines in schools could be paying off.




It is the playground of the future, already in beta mode in New York City and coming soon to empty lots, day care centers and even suburban backyards across the country.
Instead of monkey bars and jungle gyms, there are blue and white blocks to stack into high walls or to connect as sluices and walkways.

sluice
noun [C] (ALSO sluiceway)
an artificial channel for carrying water, which has an opening at one end to control the flow of the water

sluice
verb [I usually + adverb or preposition]
If water sluices out from somewhere, it flows in large amounts:
Water sluiced out from the pipes.walkway
noun [C]
a passage or path, especially one which is covered or raised above the ground

sluice



━━ n., v. 水門 (sluice gate [valve]); =sluiceway; せき水, 奔流; 流れ出る, 水門を開いて流す; …に水をかける[かけて洗う]; 【採鉱】(砂金土を)流し樋で洗う; (丸太を)水流に流し送る.
 sluice・way 放水路.

obesity

KK: []
DJ: []
n. (名詞 noun)
  1. 肥胖;過胖

satiety

(sə-tī'ĭ-tē) pronunciation
noun
    The condition of being full to or beyond satisfaction:

sa・ti・e・ty


n.
The condition of being full or gratified beyond the point of satisfaction; surfeit.
[French satiete, from Old French saciete, from Latin satietās, from satis, sufficient.]

━━ n. 飽き飽きすること; 満喫.

所以公司以它為名:
Satiety has brought in $30 million in Series D funding to support the first U.S. clinical trials of a new medical device to control obesity.


satiety
Humans and many animals eat in discrete periods of time, that is, they eat meals. Before a meal begins the sensation of hunger rises, and this motivates food-seeking behaviour. Once eating starts, hunger declines, and people report that they start to feel full. The term ‘satiation’ describes the processes that bring a meal to an end. An interval of time will then elapse before eating begins again. ‘Satiety’ refers to the inhibition of eating following a meal, and it is measured both by the inter-meal interval and by the amount consumed when food is next offered.

Let us consider in more detail what happens during a meal. At the beginning, eating is rapid, with few pauses between bites. As the meal progresses, eating slows, there are more pauses between bites, and other behaviours such as fidgeting, grooming, or resting increase. A state of satiety is reached when the meal ends. This state is usually associated with a pleasant sensation of fullness or satisfaction. However, unpleasant sensations of nausea and bloating can be associated with satiety following excessive food intake. Of interest is that even when eating has stopped altogether, the introduction of a new food can restart eating. We call this satiety for one food but not for others ‘sensory-specific satiety’. This specificity of satiety explains why, in a multi-course meal, dessert is eaten even when we feel full.

Satiation and satiety depend both on behavioural and physiological responses. The act of eating and our beliefs about what we are eating are important. As food is ingested, a number of physiological processes are sequentially activated. We chew food and it then moves down our throats and into our stomachs, thereby stimulating receptors which respond to the bulk of food and the nutrients it contains. Distension of the stomach and gut makes us feel full. The gut also releases hormones which affect satiety. All of these responses to food occur within minutes of eating, but the metabolism of food, that is turning it into fuel several hours later, also affects satiety or when we will eat again.

Much recent research has explored how different types of foods affect the satisfaction and feelings of fullness that follow eating. While the calorie content of food can influence satiety, another important factor is the weight or volume of food consumed. Since fat has more than twice the calories per gram as either carbohydrate or protein, a high-fat meal is smaller in size than a low-fat meal with the same number of calories. Imagine that before a meal you eat a first course of either tomato soup or an equivalent number of calories from cheese on crackers. The soup provides a greater bulk of food because it has a higher water content and little fat. You will feel fuller and hunger will be suppressed more following the soup than the cheese on crackers, thus you will eat less food during the main course. Understanding how different foods and nutrients affect satiety is leading to strategies to reduce energy intake and to control body weight. Eating a diet of low-fat, high-fibre, high volume foods such as fruits and vegetables is a healthy, natural way to increase satiety after a meal.
— Barbara Rolls
Bibliography

  • Rolls, B. J. (1986). Sensory-specific satiety. Nutrition Reviews, 44, 93-101
World of the Body. The Oxford Companion to the Body. Copyright © 2001, 2003 by Oxford University Press


文哲方面:

梁實秋先生在下段並沒有將 satiety翻譯出來: "膩於日常生活之心滿意足之累"
談藝:梁實秋譯Preface to Shakespeare前兩段;趙翼『論詩』(五首)




rl (張瑞麟) 留言:
re: hc: 也許你有興趣將它們(Preface to Shakespeare的前兩段,梁實秋編著《英國文學史》協志工業叢書,卷二 第九六六頁—rl 指出)打出來,供大家觀摩梁實秋先生之翻譯。

慶幸我中文輸入速度每分鐘約可達五十字,英文嘛只要剽掠過來就行了。注:兩處【】內的文字是我擅自訂正的(洽【恰】、局【拘】囿)。

NOTHING can please many, and please long, but just representations of general nature. Particular manners can be known to few, and therefore few only can judge how nearly they are copied. The irregular combinations of fanciful invention may delight awhile, by that novelty of which the common satiety of life sends us all in quest: but the pleasures of sudden wonder are soon exhausted, and the mind can only repose on the stability of truth.
除了對一般人性所作之洽當的表現,沒有作品能討好大眾,並討好於永久。特殊的習性只有少數人了解。所以只有少數人知道其所描寫是否真切。人厭倦於普通生活,總不免要尋求新奇的刺激,所以奇思怪想之不規則的篇章可以給人以片刻的喜悅;但是這種驚奇的喜悅不久即告消竭,人的心情只能寄托在穩定的真理上面。


EuroVox | 02.02.2009 | 05:30

British Government Fights Obesity With Healthy Funds

Nine areas across the UK have been designated as "Healthy Towns" by the British Government and will share 31 million euros to fund schemes to fight obesity over the next three years.

The nine town or cities are some of the worst affected by the problems of obesity, something which has alarmed the British government.
It says action must be taken now to turn people's lifestyles around, or on current trends, nearly 60 per cent of the country's population will be obese by 2050. Portsmouth, a city on the south coast, is one of the nine to receive the additional monies.

Definition

fidget
v., -et·ed, -et·ing, -ets. v.intr.
  1. To behave or move nervously or restlessly.
  2. To play or fuss; fiddle: He fidgeted with his notes while lecturing.
v.tr.
To cause to behave or move nervously or restlessly.
n.
  1. A condition of restlessness as manifested by nervous movements. Often used in the plural with the.
  2. One that fidgets.
[From obsolete and dialectal fidge, to move restlessly, perhaps from Middle English fiken, of Scandinavian origin.]

fidgety

Line breaks: fidgety
Pronunciation: /ˈfɪdʒɪti/


adjective


Derivatives

fidgetiness
noun
discrete 
adjective
having a clear independent shape or form; separate:
These small companies now have their own discrete identity.
NOTE: Do not confuse with discreet
discrete
分離{ぶんり}した、離れた、離散的{りさん てき}、別々{べつべつ}の、別個{べっこ}の、不連続{ふれんぞく}の、個々{ここ}の、個別的{こべつてき}な◆discreet と間違わないこと。discrete, discreet のラテン語は共に、discret (discretus)で同じ。

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