2016年5月31日 星期二

recurring, disregard, recurrent, figural recurrence, palindrome, chiasmus






"Democracy is the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the people are right more than half of the time."

In a piece from the July 3, 1943, issue of The New Yorker, E. B. White responded to a request from the Writers’ War Board.
NYR.KR|由 THE NEW YORKER 上傳



Joyce on George Meredith

Western Europe was the setting for much of Dr. Gay’s work and Freud was a recurring subject. An urbane and nonbelieving Jew, like Freud, Dr. Gay found in him not only a compelling life and body of work, but an approach to history. 

蓋伊博士的著作多以西歐為研究背景*,一再探討弗洛伊德相關的主題。他就像弗洛伊德,是位沒信教的、溫文爾雅的猶太人。蓋伊認為弗洛伊德的一生和全套的著作、思想都很可觀,可作為歷史研究的方法。蓋伊博士曾在西新英格蘭研究所研究過心理分析,提倡以弗洛伊德技術來研究歷史,他也認為,該領域會被化約為關於童年期的慾望和神經官能症的公式,乃是無稽之談。
recurrent colliers.

When I had the honour of being made President of the Mathematical Association, I did not foresee the unusual responsibility which it entailed. It was my intention to take as the theme of a presidential address the consideration of some aspect of those special subjects to which my own researches have principally been directed. Events have forced me to abandon that intention. It is useless to discuss abstract questions in the midst of dominant practical preoccupation. We cannot disregard the present crisis in European civilization. It affects every function of life. In the harder struggle for existence which lies before the nation, all departments of national effort will be reviewed for judgment. The mere necessity for economy of resources will provoke this reformation.



IBM’s diverse portfolio of information technology (IT) solutions, services and steady base of recurring revenue is expected to provide the company with the competitive edge to weather the current global financial crisis.

HC: "figural recurrence" 的直譯是"修辭格--或比喻的--重提/重述"。


漢學家Andrew H. Plaks *的文學術語 "figural recurrence" 

《劍橋中國文學《金瓶梅》一節》;


....乃已精心設計的重複模式結撰而成。
   "figural recurrence"譯成:"形象迭見"  ,未附原文, p.131

The Cambridge History of Chinese Literature: From 1375

https://books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=0521855594
Kang-i Sun Chang, ‎Stephen Owen - 2010 - ‎Chinese literature
... critics alike have noticed that the novel is constructed out of carefully constructed patterns of repetition or, to borrow a term used by Plaks, "figural recurrence.
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浦安迪自選《金瓶梅》非集體創作
前後呼應法 .....
   "figural recurrence" 譯成:"形象再現法", 附原文 , p.139

recurrence 

Pronunciation: /rɪˈkʌrəns/ 

NOUN

[MASS NOUN]
The fact of occurring again:a drug used to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer[COUNT NOUN]: fifty-two patients had recurrences of intestinal problems


melanoma

melanoma黑色素瘤是一种主要在皮肤的恶性黑色素细胞肿瘤。是皮肤癌中罕见的一种,但恶性程度高,是皮肤癌的主要死亡原因之一[1]。目前唯一有效的治疗方法是在肿瘤厚度小于1毫米时手术切除肿瘤[2] 。

murdrum (MUR-drum)

noun
1. The killing of a human being in a secret manner.
2. The fine payable to the king by the hundred where such a killing occurred, unless the killer was produced or the victim proved to be a Saxon.

Etymology
From Medieval Latin, from Old French, murdre, murder.

Usage
"[F]or the unsolved murders of Frenchmen, they inflicted a particularly punitive version of the long-lasting murdrum fine ..." — Saint George for England. Rebecca Colman, Saint George for England, Contemporary Review, Apr 1997. Did you notice that today's word is a palindrome? Two other palindromic words have made the AWAD list so far: minim and Nauruan. -Anu

re・cur


Occur again periodically or repeatedly:when the symptoms recurred, the doctor diagnosedsomething different(as adjective recurringa recurring theme

(Of a thought, image, or memory) come back to one’s mind:Oglethorpe’s words kept recurring to him
(recur to) Go back to (something) in thought or speech:the book remained a favourite and she constantlyrecurred to it
━━ vi. (-rr-) (話が)前に戻る ((to)); 回想する, (考えが)再び浮ぶ ((to)); 再発する, 繰返す; 【数】循環する.
re・cur・rence ━━ n. 再発; 回想; 元へ戻ること.
re・cur・rent
 ━━ a. 回帰[再発,循環]する.
re・cur・rent・ly ad.
re・cur・ring ━━ a. 繰り返し起こる; 循環する.
recurring decimal 【数】循環小数.
re・cur・sion ━━ n. 【コンピュータ】再帰, 反復; 【数】帰納.
recursion formula 【数】帰納式, 回帰公式.
re・cur・sive ━━ a. 【コンピュータ】再帰的な.
recursive call 【コンピュータ】再帰的呼び出し, リカーシブ・コール.
recursive procedure 【コンピュータ】再帰的手続き.

palindrome

(păl'ĭn-drōm') pronunciation


n
. - 回文 A word, phrase, verse, or sentence that reads the same backward or forward. For example: A man, a plan, a canal, Panama!

palindrome, a word (like deed, , eye, or tenet) that remains the same if read backwards; or a sentence or verse in which the order of letters is the same reading backwards or forwards, disregarding punctuation and spaces between words: Madam, I'm Adam.


A segment of double-stranded DNA in which the nucleotide sequence of one strand reads in reverse order to that of the complementary strand.縺向相反而鹼序相同或近於相同的DNA的構造;迴折
遺傳的旋轉對稱順序
[From Greek palindromos, running back again, recurring : palin, again + dromos, a running.]
palindromic pal'in·dro'mic (-drō'mĭk, -drŏm'ĭk) adj.


張先生來函再解釋
早!Palinode還是第一次聽到。實在無知。對修辭學我是現學現賣(學而時習之),開totorial實在不敢。
昨晚翻閱陳望道的《修辭學發凡》(到目前我還是奉為經典),發現他把chiasmus和Palindrome同列為「回文」,而且以chiasmus(書中並未列英文,是我附會)為先,也即我們所熟知的「回文」(palindrome)反而是「後來有人好奇,定要做到詞序完全可以不拘,無論順讀、倒讀都可成文。」所舉例子都出自《老子》:
信者不美、美者不信
善者不辯、辯者不善
知者不博、博者不知
可見這是很古老的修辭格,但依現代的需求,應該和palindrome分家。大陸年來對修辭格常有新見(台灣似較保守),二年前在大陸買得一本《修辭新格》(福建教育出版社,譚永祥主編),可能已有此格,可惜此書好意借給一位教授朋友,迄今未還(可見內容還不錯),無法印證,可能要設法重買了。
張華 上

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 chiasmus
 …a rhetorical or literary figure in which words, grammatical constructions, or concepts are repeated in reverse order

disregard
tr.v., -gard·ed, -gard·ing, -gards.
  1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.
  2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.
n.
Lack of thoughtful attention or due regard.

disregarder dis're·gard'er n.
disregardful dis're·gard'ful adj. recur Show phonetics
verb [I] -rr-
to happen many times or to happen again:
The theme of freedom recurs throughout her writing.
If the pain/problem/trouble, etc. recurs, come and see me.

recurring Show phonetics
adjective (ALSO recurrent)
The father-daughter relationship is a recurring theme in her novels.
For much of his life he suffered from recurring bouts of depression.
LeFanu suffered all his life from a recurrent nightmare that he was trapped in a falling house.

recurrence Show phonetics
noun [C or U]
The doctor told him to go to the hospital if there was a recurrence of his symptoms.re·cur·rent (rĭ-kûr'ənt, -kŭr'-) pronunciation
adj.
  1. Occurring or appearing again or repeatedly.
  2. Anatomy. Turning in a reverse direction. Used of blood vessels and nerves.
recurrently re·cur'rent·ly adv.

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