2016年6月16日 星期四

stout, stern, shady, grove, facademe, Bardolator, be made of sterner stuff

Gauntlets are familiar to us today as the stout leather gloves used for gardening and the like. Mediaeval gauntlets were made of even sterner stuff. Gauntlets, or gantlettes, gauntelotes etc., formed part of suits of armour. They were usually covered with plates of steel and were as useful for attack as for defence. When a dispute arose involving a member of the English nobility who was wealthy enough to own his own armour then he (it was always a he) would literally 'throw down the gauntlet' as a challenge. 

Man drinking stout Many Irish used to go down to the pub for a pint every day
Over 6000 pubs in Ireland supply their guests with life's essentials, such as stout beer, potato crisps, and local gossip. But customers now only come on the weekend, instead of every day. "Even on the weekends it's getting harder", says Murray. "You have to have something on to bring in the crowd, let it be music or some sort of entertainment.”

Influence has long been Bloom’s abiding preoccupation, and the one that established him, in the 1970s, as a radical, even disruptive presence amid the groves of academe. This may surprise some who think of Bloom primarily as a stalwart of the Western canon, fending off the assaults of “the School of Resentment” and its “rabblement of lemmings,” or as a self-confessed Bardolator, swooning over “Hamlet” and “Lear.”


Engraving of Shakespeare: the term "bardolatry" derives from Shaw's coinage "Bardolator", combining the words "bard" and "idolatry" by refers to the excessive adulation of Shakespeare.[1][2]


SOON after Paul had been to the theatre with Clara, he was drinking in the Punch Bowl with some friends of his when Dawes came in. Clara's husband was growing stout; his eyelids were getting slack over his brown eyes; he was losing his healthy firmness of flesh. He was very evidently on the downward track. Having quarrelled with his sister, he had gone into cheap lodgings. His mistress had left him for a man who would marry her. He had been in prison one night for fighting when he was drunk, and there was a shady betting episode in which he was concerned.

adj., stout·er, stout·est.
  1. Having or marked by boldness, bravery, or determination; firm and resolute.
  2. Strong in body; sturdy.
  3. Strong in structure or substance; solid or substantial.
  4. Bulky in figure; thickset or corpulent. See synonyms at fat.
  5. Powerful; forceful.
  6. Stubborn or uncompromising: put up stout resistance to the proposal.
    1. A thickset or corpulent person.
    2. A garment size for a large or heavy figure.
  1. A strong, very dark beer or ale.
[Middle English, from Old French estout, of Germanic origin.]
stoutish stout'ish adj.
stoutly stout'ly adv.
stoutness stout'ness n.
形](〜er, 〜・est)

1 太った;ずんぐりした, どっしりした. ▼ふつう肉づきのよい, がっちりした体をいうが, しばしばfatの婉曲語として用いる
a stout (,) thickset man
2 ((文))〈人が〉勇敢な, 大胆な;頑強(がんきょう)な;〈態度などが〉確固とした, きっぱりした
stout fellows
大胆な連中, 勇敢な闘士
one's stout refusal
3 激しい;活発な
a stout gale
a stout attack
4 ((文))〈体が〉じょうぶな;たくましい;〈ものの〉作りが頑丈な, 堅固な;〈馬などが〉耐久力のある.
5 〈食事などが〉実質のある;〈酒などが〉強い
a stout meal
1 [U]スタウト:強い黒ビール.
2 肥満した人.
3 スタウトサイズ(肥満型の服の寸法);((通例〜s))((主に米))スタウトサイズの服(オーバーなど).

adj., -i·er, -i·est.
  1. Full of shade; shaded.
  2. Casting shade: a shady grove.
  3. Quiet, dark, or concealed; hidden.
  4. Of dubious character or honesty; questionable. See synonyms at dark.
shadily shad'i·ly adv.
shadiness shad'i·ness n.


Pronunciation: /staʊt/

Translate stout | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish


  • 1(of a person) rather fat or of heavy build:stout middle-aged men
  • 2(of an object) strong and thick:Billy had armed himself with a stout stickstout walking boots
  • 3having or showing courage and determination:he put up a stout defence in court


[mass noun]
  • a kind of strong, dark beer brewed with roasted malt or barley:[count noun]:microbreweries specialize in ales and stouts









Middle English: from Anglo-Norman French and Old French dialect, of West Germanic origin; perhaps related to stilt. The noun (late 17th century) originally denoted any strong beer and is probably elliptical for stout ale


Pronunciation: /stəːn/

Translate stern | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish


  • (of a person or their manner) serious and unrelenting, especially in the assertion of authority and exercise of discipline:a smile transformed his stern faceMama looked stern
  •  (of an act or statement) strict and severe:stern measures to restrict vehicle growth
  •  (of competition or opposition) putting someone or something under extreme pressure:the past year has been a stern test of the ability of British industry


be made of sterner stuff

have a stronger character and be more able to overcome problems than others:whereas James was deeply wounded by the failure, George was made of sterner stuff
[from Shakespeare's Julius Caesar ( iii. 2. 93)]

Le bosquet du Théâtre d'Eau vu du ciel
The Water Theatre Grove from the sky
© EPV / Thomas Garnier - Skydrone

(grōv) pronunciation
  1. A small wood or stand of trees lacking dense undergrowth.
  2. A group of trees planted and cultivated for the production of fruit or nuts: an orange grove.
[Middle English, from Old English grāf.]