2016年6月1日 星期三

sampling, work sampling, on the sidelines, sample, sampler and tester

This book is for sampling instead of continuous reading.

最早應該是英國 。"work sampling 法",其實已經很好,  不過產業界的人多有自己的文字障 ,喜歡自己命名。

Deming 在 Out of the Crisis 採用英國用語(統計學)如ratio-delay study等,應翻譯成台灣用的美國說法,  如"工作抽查"work sampling等。

work sampling --(industrial engineering) A technique to measure work activity as related to delays consisting of intermittent observations of actual work and delays.

Also known as activity sampling; frequency study; ratio delay study.

Occurrence sampling is also called work sampling or ratio-delay sampling. If time study is a “movie,” then occurrence sampling is a “series of snapshots.”

Clinton didn't waste any time telling her supporters that they should stand behind Obama. "Whether you voted for me, or voted for Barack, the time is now to unite as a single party with a single purpose," she said. "We are on the same team, and none of us can sit on the sidelines."

10.06. - Hits in Germany: Pop from the German Top 100

Call it Kicks in Germany this time! In a special edition, we celebrate the
2008 UEFA European Football Championship, EURO 2008 for short, by sampling
some of the pop music playing on the sidelines.

The DW-WORLD Article
sideline was found in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary at the entries listed below.

2016.6.1(德國之聲中文網)作曲家和音樂製作人佩爾哈姆(Moses Pelham)取得了一個階段性的勝利。在有關能否未經允許採用他人作品中的節律,也就是所謂採樣的訴訟中,佩爾哈姆獲得了第一個有利的裁決。他對此前多個判決提出的上訴在德國聯邦憲法法院獲准,案子需要重新審理。
佩爾哈姆與電子流行樂隊"發電站"(Kraftwerk)之間的這場官司已經打了10年多,爭議點是一段長度只有兩秒的音頻。1997年,佩爾哈姆在與說唱女歌手Sabrina Setlur共同錄製的歌曲《只有我》(Nur mir)當中,沒有徵得同意就採用了"發電站"一首名為"Metall auf Metall"的樂曲中兩秒鐘長的一個旋律,並將其循環反复延長為一段背景音樂。


Take a sample or samples of (something) for analysis:bone marrow cells were sampled

Record or extract (a small piece of music or sound) digitally for reuse as part of a composition or song:riffs sampled from other musicians(as noun samplingsampling is bringing older music to younger ears


━━ n., vt. 側線; 【フットボール・テニスなど】サイドライン; (pl.) サイドラインの外側; 副業, 内職; (主流商品以外の)二次的商品; 〔米〕 (選手を)欠場させる.
 on the sidelines 現役を退いて; 傍観の立場で.
side・liner 傍観者.

字尾(suff) 加 –er 或–or1 是很常見的,不過查The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition,它的意義倒相當多樣:

One that performs a specified action: swimmer.
One that undergoes or is capable of undergoing a specified action: broiler.
One that has: ten-pounder.
One associated or involved with: banker.

Native or resident of: New Yorker.
One that is: foreigner.
由於我們有關連的網站quality world,所以我將該領域得常用字眼 sample(樣本)和 test(測試)加 er,看看結果是否有點出乎你意外:

sampler noun [C]a piece of cloth with letters, words, pictures etc. stitched on it to show how well you can sew, made especially in the past and often hung on the wall like a picture
(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)
這只說明西方的刺繡示範版本:圖示及更詳細說明:Wikipedia article "Sampler (needlework)".
━━ n. 見本検査係; 試食[飲]者; (女学生の)刺しゅう試作品; 〔米〕 見本集
sam·pler (săm'plər) n.
One who is employed to take and appraise samples, as of a food product. 樣品檢查員, 取樣員
A mechanical device that is used to obtain and analyze samples.
A decorative piece of cloth embroidered with various designs or mottoes in a variety of stitches, serving as an example of skill at needlework.

A representative collection or selection: a sampler of American short-story writers.
A variety; an assortment.
An electronic device used to copy and digitally manipulate a segment from an audio recording for use in a new recording.
[Senses 3 and 4, partly Middle English, model (from Anglo-Norman *essamplur) and partly short for Middle English ensampler (from Anglo-Norman ensamplour), both from Late Latin exemplārium, model, copy, from Latin, copy. See exemplar.]
exemplar noun [C] FORMALa typical or good example of something:It is an exemplar of a house of the period.(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)

----tester noun [C]1 a person or a machine which tests something2 a small container of a product which you can try in order to see if you like it

noun [C]
1 a small amount of something that shows you what the rest is or should be like:
a free sample of shampoo
samples of carpet/curtain material
Please bring some samples of your work to the interview.

2 a small amount of a substance that a doctor or scientist collects in order to examine it:
a blood/urine sample

3 a group of people or things that is chosen out of a larger number and is questioned or tested in order to obtain information about the larger group:
a random sample of voters
a nationally representative sample of 200 schools

verb [T]
1 to taste a small amount of food or drink to decide whether you like it:
As the food looked so good, he decided to sample a little from each dish.

2 to experience a place or an activity, often for the first time:
So you're going to sample the delights/pleasures of the new restaurant?