2015年12月3日 星期四

essay, bull (NONSENSE), bullshit, 'pseudo-profound bulls***'

A new scientific study has found that those who are receptive to pseudo-profound, intellectual-sounding 'bulls***' are less intelligent, less reflective, and more likely to be believe in conspiracy theories, the paranormal and alternative medicine.
PhD candidate Gordon Pennycook and a team of researchers from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada, tested hundreds of particiapants to make the link, detailing their findings in a paper entitled 'On the reception and detection of pseudo-profound bulls***', which mentions the word 'bulls***' exactly 200 times (surely some sort of record).
Defining bulls*** is a tricky task, but Pennycook and his team tried their best in the paper.
As an example, they gave the following 'pseudo-profound' statement: "Hidden meaning transforms unparalleled abstract beauty."
The paper says: "Although this statement may seem to convey some sort of potentially profound meaning, it is merely a collection of buzzwords put together randomly in a sentence that retains syntactic strcuture."
"Bulls***, in contrast to mere nonsense, is something that implies but does not contain adequate meaning or truth."

So Now Everything Is Google's Fault
Washington Post - United States
Now he's back again, this time targeting Google. Thank God the bloggers are here to call bullshit because the journalists, fearing their own looming ...


「二○○四年秋天,日本全國六百家書店一起舉辦了「Comic Essay書展」 …….Comic Essay」顧名思義是漫畫(comic)和散文( essay)的混合創作,………輕鬆幽默的劇情加上或爆笑或溫馨的漫畫表現,Comic Essay類型讀物在日本獲得許多女性讀者的支持。」(〈日本:閱讀風潮〉陳孟姝『「 Comic Essay」成為新閱讀趨勢 』)上文中comic,或許以後可以再談。「散文( essay)」,「多少」算是美麗的錯誤了解。

其實,你參觀fortune.com雙周刊,就有篇所謂 photo essay--
It has been just over six years since Carleton S. Fiorina, now 50, burst upon the national stage and we will acknowledge straight out that FORTUNE played a role in putting her name in lights. In 1998, FORTUNE ranked her No. 1 on its first-ever ranking of the 50 most powerful women executives in the
U.S., and that was the end of her quasi-obscurity. In the pages that follow, see highlights from our coverage…)
我們查一下線上辭典。我想goo辭典對於essay的解釋大體抓到重點 (英文 from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)
━━ n. (文芸上の)小論, 試論; 評論, 随筆; 試み ((at, in)).━━ essay (ATTEMPT) verb [T] OLD-FASHIONED 此「嘗試」義為本來意思(如胡適的『嘗試集』(詩?)) v. 試みる, 企てる. to try to do something:The procedure was first essayed in 1923.
essay (WRITING) UK noun [C] (US paper) --
a short piece of writing on a particular subject, especially one done by students as part of the work for a course:
例:For homework I want you to write an essay on endangered species.
sayist   ━━ n. 日本 随筆家.【或許誤譯】a person who writes essays that are published:
a political essayist

essay question
:論文式(テスト)問題.。我猜這是「「小問題」之『大哉問』」,最近的例子是美國某名大學出版社將約20 年前某篇討論人們為什麼喜歡/會 說:「bull shit」等等的哲學(「愛智!」)分析。(
complete nonsense or something that is not true:
Don't give me that bull about not knowing the time

bullshit Show phonetics
exclamation, noun [U] OFFENSIVE
complete nonsense or something that is not true:
Bullshit! He never said that!
He gave me some excuse but it was a load of bullshit.

bullshit Show phonetics
verb [I or T] -tt- OFFENSIVE
to try to persuade or impress someone by saying things that are not true:
You're bullshitting me!
Quit bullshitting, will you!

bullshitter Show phonetics


The work is called "On Bull - - - - ."

The opening paragraph of the 67-page essay is a model of reason and composition, repeatedly disrupted by that single obscenity:

"One of the most salient features of our culture is that there is so much [bull]. Everyone knows this. Each of us contributes his share. But we tend to take the situation for granted. Most people are rather confident of their ability to recognize [bull] and to avoid being taken in by it. So the phenomenon has not aroused much deliberate concern, nor attracted much sustained inquiry."

中文有不少解釋 essay所以為 essay,其中有許多人有慧見。
近來,Stephen Owen(宇文所安)幫自己的書『追憶:中國古典文學中的往日再現』(Remembrances)再/ 新(三聯)版(2005)寫的前言,最能說明 essays之妙哉:「…… 英語essay則可以把文學、文學批評以及學術研究……重新融為一體。…….

佐良.編譯《並非舞文弄墨:英國散文新選》出版社:香港, Oxford University Press, Inc.【王佐良先生編過一本『英國散文的流變』,不過這是從史的角度出發,近代文體多樣化加速…….