2015年12月28日 星期一

syllable, terza rima, rewire, tercets, villanelle,

"Do not go gentle into that good night" by Dylan Thomas (1914 - 1953)
Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
The first of its kind--a comprehensive collection of the best of the villanelle, a delightful poetic form whose popularity ranks only behind that of the sonnet and the haiku. With its intricate rhyme scheme and dance-like pattern of repeating lines, its marriage of recurrence and surprise, the villanelle is a form that has fascinated poets since its introduction almost two centuries ago. Many well-known poets in the past have tried their hands at the villanelle, and the form is enjoying a revival among poets writing today. The poems collected here range from the classic villanelles of the nineteenth century to such famous and memorable examples as Dylan Thomas's "Do not go gentle into that good night," Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art," and Sylvia Plath's "Mad Girl's Love Song." Here too are the cutting-edge works of contemporary poets, including Sherman Alexie, Lorna Dee Cervantes, Rita Dove, Seamus Heaney, Paul Muldoon, and many others whose poems demonstrate the dazzling variety that can be found within the parameters of a single, strict form. READ an excerpt from the introduction here: http://knopfdoubleday.com/book/215655/villanelles/

《中英對照讀新聞》Singing ’rewires’ damaged brain 唱歌讓受傷大腦「重新通電」
Teaching stroke patients to sing "rewires" their brains, helping them recover their speech, say scientists. By singing, patients use a different area of the brain from the area involved in speech. If a person’s "speech centre" is damaged by a stroke, they can learn to use their "singing centre" instead.
An ongoing clinical trial, they said, has shown how the brain responds to this "melodic intonation therapy". The therapy is already established as a medical technique.
Most of the connections between brain areas that control movement and those that control hearing are on the left side of the brain. But there’s a sort of corresponding hole on the right side. For some reason, it’s not as endowed with these connections, so the left side is used much more in speech. But as patients learn to put their words to melodies, the crucial connections form on the right side of their brains.
During the therapy sessions, patients are taught to put their words to simple melodies. After a single session, a stroke patients who was are not able to form any intelligible words learned to say the phrase "I am thirsty" by combining each syllable with the note of a melody.
ongoing:形容詞,正在進行的。例句:No agreement has yet been reached and the negotiations are still ongoing.(目前談判尚未達成協議,仍在進行當中。)
be endowed with:片語,與生俱有……。例句:Some lucky people are endowed with both brains and beauty.(一些幸運的人智慧與美貌兼具。)
intelligible:形容詞,(說話或寫字)清晰的。例句:She was so upset when she spoke that she was hardly intelligible.(她難過到說話都說不太清楚。)

v., -wired, -wir·ing, -wires. v.tr.
To provide with new wiring: rewired the old house.

To install new wiring.

terza rima

, pl. ter·ze ri·me (tĕr'tsĕ rē').
A verse form of Italian origin consisting of tercets of 10 or 11 syllables with the middle line rhyming with the first and third lines of the following tercet.
[Italian : terza, feminine of terzo, third + rima, rhyme.]

terza rima [ter‐tsă ree‐mă]a verse form consisting of a sequence of interlinked tercets rhyming aba bcb cdc ded etc. Thus the second line of each tercet provides the rhyme for the first and third lines of the next; the sequence closes with one line (or in a few cases, two lines) rhyming with the middle line of the last tercet: yzy z (z). The form was invented by Dante Alighieri for his Divina Commedia (c.1320), using the Italian hendecasyllabic line. It has been adopted by several poets in English pentameters, notably by P. B. Shelley in his ‘Ode to the West Wind’ (1820).

villanelleLine breaks: vil¦lan|elle
Pronunciation: /ˌvɪləˈnɛl/ 

Definition of villanelle in English:


pastoral or lyrical poem of nineteen lines, with only two rhymes throughout, and some lines repeated.
  • But in my beginning classes, the first thing they have to learn until they get to that point where I see they have it under control is blues, blues-sonnets, regular sonnets, villanelles, sestinas, haikus, tankas, and odes.
  • There were ballades, chants royal, kyrielles, pantoums, rondeaux, rondels, rondeau redoubles, Sicilian octaves, roundels, sestinas, triolets, villanelles, and virelais to play with, and poets of varying merit had a go.
  • We are still writing sonnets, villanelles, sestinas, even pantoums and triolets, ballades and rondels, as well as inventing ‘nonce’ forms to suit our uses.


Late 19th century: from French, from Italian villanella (see villanella).

villanelle (also known as villanesque)[1] is a nineteen-line poetic form consisting of five tercets followed by a quatrain. There are two refrains and two repeating rhymes, with the first and third line of the first tercet repeated alternately until the last stanza, which includes both repeated lines. The villanelle is an example of a fixed verse form. The word derives from Latin, then Italian, and is related to the initial subject of the form being the pastoral.
The form started as a simple ballad-like song with no fixed form; this fixed quality would only come much later, from the poem "Villanelle (J'ay perdu ma Tourterelle)" (1606) by Jean Passerat. From this point, its evolution into the "fixed form" used in the present day is debated. Despite its French origins, the majority of villanelles have been written in English, a trend which began in the late nineteenth century. The villanelle has been noted as a form that frequently treats the subject of obsessions, and one which appeals to outsiders; its defining feature of repetition prevents it from having a conventional tone.


The word villanelle derives from the Italian villanella, referring to a rustic song or dance,[2] and which comes from villano, meaning peasant or villein.[3] Villano derives from the Medieval Latin villanus, meaning a "farmhand".[4] The etymology of the word relates to the fact that the form's initial distinguishing feature was the pastoral subject.[2]