2015年12月28日 星期一

algebra, algebraic sense, high-flying, higher learning, asterisk, punctuation

The Project Gutenberg eBook of Reason In Common Sense ...

GEORGE SANTAYANA ... Berkeley's algebra of perception. ... Sense and spirit the life of nature, which science redistributes but does not deny Pages 118-136.
Consciousness untrustworthy.
Nevertheless this same algebraic sense for character plays a large part in human friendship. A chief element in friendship is trust, and trust is not to be acquired by reproducing consciousness but only by penetrating to the constitutional instincts which, in determining action and habit, determine consciousness as well. Fidelity is not a property of ideas. It is a virtue possessed pre-eminently by nature, from the animals to the seasons and the stars. But fidelity gives friendship its deepest sanctity, and the respect we have for a man, for his force, ability, constancy, and dignity, is no sentiment evoked by his floating thoughts but an assurance founded on our own observation that his conduct and character are to be counted upon. Smartness and vivacity, much emotion and many conceits, are obstacles both to fidelity and to merit. There is a high worth in rightly constituted natures independent of incidental consciousness. It consists in that ingrained virtue which under given circumstances would insure the noblest action and with that action, of course, the noblest sentiments and ideas; ideas which would arise spontaneously and would make more account of their objects than of themselves.
Metaphorical mind.

The expression of habit in psychic metaphors is a procedure known also to theology. Whenever natural or moral law is declared to reveal the divine mind, this mind is a set of formal or ethical principles rather than an imagined consciousness, re-enacted dramatically. What is conceived is the god's operation, not his emotions. In this way God's goodness becomes a symbol for the advantages of life, his wrath a symbol for its dangers, his commandments a symbol for its laws. The deity spoken of by the Stoics had exclusively this symbolic character; it could be called a city—dear City of Zeus—as readily as an intelligence. And that intelligence which ancient and ingenuous philosophers said they saw in the world was always intelligence in this algebraic sense, it was intelligible order. Nor did the Hebrew prophets, in their emphatic political philosophy, seem to mean much more by Jehovah than a moral order, a principle giving vice and virtue their appropriate fruits.

Even China’s unquestioned economic clout comes with an asterisk. While Chinese megacities boom and the country’s coast has become the world’s factory, 800 million of the nation’s 1.3 billion citizens remain farmers, many mired in poverty. China remains a developing nation, still vying for first-world status.

As Obama Talks Of Bipartisanship, Definitions Vary

After a week of legislative successes for President Obama, Republicans seized on one asterisk: his inability to line up support from their ranks. As he heads into his second full week in office, members of both parties are waiting to see whether he will regard this as the failure that some have made...
(By Alec MacGillis and Paul Kane, The Washington Post)

The panel concluded that America's problems become apparent when students start to study algebra—for most, their first encounter with genuinely abstract thinking.

For really high-flying mathematicians, the very idea of a national maths culture sounds dated. It comes naturally to them to find collaborators in one continent, publish in another and teach all over the world. But governments cannot help worrying; and the trick of importing fully-trained brains will become less viable as “exporting” countries develop their own systems of higher learning.

Algebra is the language through which we describe patterns. Think of it as a shorthand, of sorts. As opposed to having to do something over and over again, algebra gives you a simple way to express that repetitive process. It's also seen as a "gatekeeper" subject.

Algebra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols; it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics. As such, it includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groups, rings, and fields.

algebra Line breaks: al¦ge|bra
Pronunciation: /ˈaldʒɪbrə/ 

Definition of algebra in English:


1The part of mathematics in which letters and other general symbols are used to represent numbers and quantities in formulae and equations:courses in algebra, geometry, and Newtonian physics
1.1A system of algebra based on given axioms.


Pronunciation: /ˌaldʒɪˈbreɪɪst/ 


Late Middle English: from Italian, Spanish, and medieval Latin, from Arabic al-jabr 'the reunion of broken parts', 'bone-setting', from jabara 'reunite, restore'. The original sense, 'the surgical treatment of fractures', probably came via Spanish, in which it survives; the mathematical sense comes from the title of a book, ‘ilm al-jabr wa'l-muqābala 'the science of restoring what is missing and equating like with like', by the mathematician al-Ḵwārizmī (see algorithm).
high-flyerhigh-flier Show phonetics
noun [C]
someone who has a lot of ability and a strong desire to be successful and is therefore expected to achieve a lot:
High-flyers in the industry typically earn 25% more than their colleagues.

high-flyer Show phonetics
group noun [C] (ALSO high-flierMAINLY UK
an extremely successful organization, business or team

high-flying Show phonetics
adjective [before noun]
extremely successful:
a high-flying investment banker

higher education noun [U]
education at a college or university where subjects are studied at an advanced level

An asterisk (*) (Latin asteriscum "little star", from Greek ἀστερίσκος) is a typographical symbol or glyph. It is so called because it resembles a conventional image of a star. Computer scientists and mathematicians often pronounce it as star (as, for example, in the A* search algorithm or C* algebra).
The asterisk is derived from the need of the printers of family trees in feudal times as a symbol to indicate date of birth. The original shape was six-armed, each arm like a teardrop shooting from the center. For this reason, in some computer circles it is called a splat, perhaps due to the "squashed-bug" appearance of the asterisk on many early line printers.
Many cultures have their own unique version of the asterisk. In Japan a character with a similar use () looks like an X with dots surrounding it. This mark looks like the Chinese character for rice: . The Arabic asterisk is six-pointed. In some fonts the asterisk is five-pointed and the Arabic star is eight-pointed.

IN BRIEF: The "*" symbol that is used to direct a reader to a note.

pronunciation Tam added an asterisk to the last item on the list.


━━ n., vt. 星印〔*〕(を付ける); 【コンピュータ】アスタリスク ((*の印)).⇒aster


apostrophe ( ' )
brackets (( )), ([ ]), ({ }), (< >)
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipses ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop (period) ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
Word dividers
spaces ( ) () () ( ) ()
interpunct ( · )
General typography
ampersand ( & )
at sign ( @ )
asterisk ( * )
backslash ( \ )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency generic: ( ¤ )
specific: ¢, $, , £, ¥, ,
daggers ( , )
degree ( ° )
inverted exclamation mark ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
numero sign ( )
percent (etc.) ( %, ‰, )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde/swung dash ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )
Uncommon typography
asterism ( )
index/fist ( )
therefore sign ( )
because sign ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( )
lozenge ( )
reference mark ( )

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