2016年12月13日 星期二

denier, Christmas pyramid


From 2015: an email from Exxon’s in-house climate expert provides evidence the company at which Donald Trump's choice for secretary of state spent his entire career was aware of the connection between fossil fuels and climate change in 1981. Still, Exxon spent 27 years – and tens of millions of dollars in lobbying – denying the claim.
From 2015: A newly unearthed missive from Lenny Bernstein, a climate expert with the oil firm for 30 years, shows concerns over high presence of carbon…
THEGUARDIAN.COM|由 SUZANNE GOLDENBERG 上傳




denier1

NOUN

  • A person who denies something, especially someone who refuses to admit the truth of a concept or proposition that is supported by the majority of scientific or historical evidence:
    ‘a prominent denier of global warming’
    ‘a climate change denier’

denier2

NOUN

  • 1A unit of weight by which the fineness of silk, rayon, or nylon yarn is measured, equal to the weight in grams of 9,000 metres of the yarn and often used to describe the thickness of hosiery:
    ‘15-denier stockings’
  • 2A former French coin, equal to one twelfth of a sou, which was withdrawn in the 19th century.

The Christmas Tree: An Evergreen Garland Filled with History, ...

https://books.google.com.tw/books?isbn=1558882863
Daniel J. Foley - 1999 - ‎Snippet view - ‎More editions
... tree and the lightstand or pyramid with its candles when combined produced what we know today as the Christmas tree. ... and the elaborate pyramidal candlestick, add up to a clearly defined concept of the tree, lighted with tapers and hung .


Weihnachtspyramide (直譯:聖誕金字塔)
德國18世紀時,第一次使用聖誕金字塔。傳統的聖誕金字塔,皆使用木頭雕刻而成。金字塔的頂端,是ㄧ個風車,透過蠟燭燃燒產生的熱氣上升,進而推動風車旋轉。許多人在家都有小型的聖誕金字塔。有時候,聖誕市集裡也可以看到幾公尺高的金字塔,當然再也無法使用蠟燭推動了,使用的則是電力。
真正由德國境內製造的聖誕金字塔,主要來自薩克森邦的厄爾士山脈(Erzgebirge)。
I like Germany
A Christmas pyramid (German: Weihnachtspyramide) is a Christmas decoration that has its roots in the Erzgebirge (Ore Mountains) of Germany but has become popular throughout the country. It is suggested that the Christmas pyramid is a predecessor of the Christmas tree. These pyramids are not limited to Christmas: in the Erzgebirge there was a custom of dancing around the "St. John's Tree", "a pyramid decked with garlands and flowers", at the summer solstice.
It is a kind of carousel with several levels, some depicting Christian motifs such as angels or manger scenes, and others with more secular motifs such as mountain-folk, forests, and other scenes from the everyday life of people in the Erzgebirge. The spinning motion of the pyramids is traditionally achieved with the help of candles whose rising heat spins a propeller above.
Christmas pyramids serve a mainly decorative purpose today, filling children and adults alike with holiday cheer.
Generally Christmas pyramids are made of wood and based on four- to eight-sided platforms with a long pole in the middle serving as the axle to which the entire apparatus tapers above and which supports any further platforms. Inside in a glass or ceramic support is a driveshaft on to which at least one platform is attached. The figures, which stand on the platforms are also traditionally made of wood.
Christmas pyramids take various forms from intricately carved miniature houses with pitched roofs, to large multi-level structures that simply serve as a display for the carved figures. In many cities in the Ore Mountains there are large Christmas pyramids on the Market Square at the Christmas Market or in other locations associated with Christmas hustle and bustle.
Most of the pyramids demonstrate nativity scenes. They include the story of the Christ child being born, of shepherds and wise men visiting the child, and of angels rejoicing in heaven. The nativity scene often is placed on the longest shelf at the bottom of the pyramid, while a pine cone or a star would crown the top.

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