2016年1月31日 星期日

pathetic, apathetic, torpor,coma, comatose, hypothyroidism,veer, lethargy; torpid, Glasgow Coma Scale



What do you think of when you hear the word "pathetic?"
During Thomas Eakins's lifetime, "pathetic" was synonymous with moving, poignant, or touching—lacking today's negative connotation. The pathetic song, a popular type of melody in 1860s and 1870s America, told tales of woe, such as death or tragic circumstances befalling innocent women or children. Recited by the singer as autobiographical, such ballads often moved audiences to tears.
In this picture, an earnest young singer is accompanied by a pianist and cellist. She concentrates on holding a note of her tune. How has Eakins chosen to convey the mournful tone of the woman’s song?
"Singing a Pathetic Song" is on view in the West Building, Gallery 69:http://1.usa.gov/1N70BYF
Thomas Eakins, "Singing a Pathetic Song," 1881, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Art, Washington, Corcoran Collection (Museum Purchase, Gallery Fund), 2014.79.19



Find out why we've been ranked alongside Oxford and Cambridge as one of the UK's top political universities by Which? University:http://www.essex.ac.uk/news/event.aspx?e_id=7164 ^kc



Spending on advertising topped $1 billion this election cycle. That's around one in every three dollars of advertising on cable television. Mercifully, a few politicians used humour to jolt jaded voters out of their torpor http://econ.st/1zujwIa
COMMERCIALS for erectile-dysfunction pills are almost as ubiquitous as political ads. J.D. Winteregg, who attempted to take down John Boehner, the Speaker of the...
ECON.ST

'Luminarium'

By ALEX SHAKAR
Reviewed by CHRISTOPHER R. BEHA
Alex Shakar's protagonist broods over his comatose brother and joins a neurological experiment that promises "spiritual awakening."



Last year, an 88-year-old woman was admitted to NYU Langone Medical Center in a nearly comatose state, unable to walk or swallow and barely able to breathe. Though she had no history of thyroid disease, she was given a diagnosis of myxedema coma, a life-threatening condition caused by extreme hypothyroidism, or low thyroid function.

去年,88歲的女 子被送往紐約大學朗格尼醫學中心的近昏迷狀態,無法行走或幾乎無法吞嚥和呼吸。雖然她沒 有甲狀腺疾病史,她進行了診斷黏液水腫昏迷,威脅生命的情況所造成的極端低下,或低甲狀腺功能。

hypo-
or hyp-
pref.
  1. Below; beneath; under: hypodermic.
  2. Less than normal; deficient: hypoesthesia.
  3. In the lowest state of oxidation: hypoxanthine.
[Greek hupo-, from hupo, under, beneath.]



co·ma·tose ('mə-tōs', kŏm'ə-) pronunciation

adj.
  1. Of, relating to, or affected with coma; unconscious.
  2. Marked by lethargy; torpid.
[Greek kōma, kōmat-, deep sleep + -OSE1.]
  • [kɑ'mətòus | kóum-]
[形]昏睡(こんすい)状態の(⇔conscious);((略式))ひどく眠い;生気のない.
comatosely co'ma·tose'ly adv.

-OSE
suff.
Possessing; having the characteristics of; full of: cymose.

[Middle English, variant of -ous, from Latin -ōsus.]

-ose2
suff.
  1. Carbohydrate: fructose.
  2. Product of protein hydrolysis: proteose.
[French, from glucose, glucose. See glucose.]




有意識被誤診 當23年植物人
〔編譯羅彥傑/綜合報導〕現年46歲的比利時男子胡班,1983年因為車禍而全身癱瘓。雖然他始終清醒,23年卻持續被醫師誤診為完全失去意識的植物人;胡班也沒有辦法讓專家、家人或朋友知道,他其實聽得到他們說的每一個字。
車禍誤診 卻有口難言
3年前,胡班才因為高科技掃描儀器而獲得「平反」。這起罕見病例,可能重新引發植物人死亡權的辯論,以及目前評估植物人的症候量表,是否有進一步檢討的空間。
英國媒體23日報導說,胡班當年還只是工程科系學生,一度熱中於武術。比利時佐德市的醫師,定期用通行全球的「格拉斯哥昏迷量表」(Glasgow Coma Scale)對他進行檢查。
但每一次的檢查都得出錯誤結果,以致醫師判定其完全失去意識,列為植物人,已無康復希望。他由於有口難言,因此無法和前來探病的父母、看護或友人說明自己其實一直是清醒的,對於病房內的情況了然於胸。
格拉斯哥量表 待檢討
3年前,比利時列日大學利用最新的掃描造影儀器,重新評估胡班的病情,才發現他雖然無法控制身體,但腦部仍幾乎運作正常。雖然他不可能出院,但在治療後,已能在電腦螢幕上輸出訊息,床頭上的特殊裝置也能讓他躺著看書。
平反那一天 宛如重生
有待商胡班說︰「我大叫,但什麼都聽不到。在這段時間我一直夢想過更好的生活。挫折二字不足以描述我的感受。」他也表示無法忘記醫師發現他被誤診的那一天,猶如他的重生。
主持重估胡班病情的列日大學「昏迷科學小組」組長兼神經科學系主任勞萊博士,2個月前將有關植物人病患時常遭誤診的研究刊登在期刊上。
他說︰「任何人只要被貼上『無意識』標籤一次,幾乎此生就再難洗刷此標籤。」他打算用本病例凸顯世界各地還有許多類似情況。
勞 萊指出,光是德國每年約有10萬人遭到嚴重腦部創傷,約2萬人出現3週以上的昏迷,其中有人不治,有人恢復健康。但估計每年有3千至5千人受困在這兩者的 過渡階段,亦即在無法甦醒的情況下活著。雖然安樂死支持者主張基於生命尊嚴,應給植物人一個停用維持生命系統的機會。但另一方面,也確實有植物人康復的若 干病例。

Glasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS, is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as subsequent assessment. A patient is assessed against the criteria of the scale, and the resulting points give a patient score between 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) and either 14 (original scale) or 15 (the more widely used modified or revised scale).
GCS was initially used to assess level of consciousness after head injury, and the scale is now used by first aid, EMS and doctors as being applicable to all acute medical and trauma patients. In hospitals it is also used in monitoring chronic patients in intensive care.
The scale was published in 1974 by Graham Teasdale and Bryan J. Jennett, professors of neurosurgery at the University of Glasgow. The pair went on to author the textbook Management of Head Injuries (FA Davis 1981, ISBN 0-8036-5019-1), a celebrated work in the field.
GCS is used as part of several ICU scoring systems, including APACHE II, SAPS II, and SOFA, to assess the status of the central nervous system. A similar scale, the Rancho Los Amigos Scale is used to assess the recovery of traumatic brain injury patients.

Contents

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pathetic Line breaks: path|et¦ic
Pronunciation: /pəˈθɛtɪk/ 

Definition of pathetic in English:

adjective

1Arousing pity, especially through vulnerability or sadness:she looked so pathetic that I bent down to comfort her
2informal Miserably inadequate:he’s a pathetic excuse for a man
3archaic Relating to the emotions.

Origin

Late 16th century (in the sense 'affecting the emotions'): via late Latin from Greek pathētikos'sensitive', based on pathos 'suffering'.

apathetic

Line breaks: apath¦et¦ic
Pronunciation: /apəˈθɛtɪk /


Definition of apathetic in English:

ADJECTIVE

Origin

mid 18th century: from apathy, on the pattern ofpathetic.

Derivatives


apathetically

1
ADVERB


torpor

Pronunciation: /ˈtɔːpə/
Translate torpor | into Spanish
Definition of torpor
noun

[mass noun]
  • a state of physical or mental inactivity; lethargy:they veered between apathetic torpor and hysterical fanaticism

Origin:

late Middle English: from Latin, from torpere 'be numb or sluggish'

Spelling help

Remember that torpor ends with -or.




lethargy

Pronunciation: /ˈlɛθədʒi/

Definition of lethargy



noun

[mass noun]
  • a lack of energy and enthusiasm:there was an air of lethargy about him
  • Medicine a pathological state of sleepiness or deep unresponsiveness and inactivity: a history of weight loss, lethargy, and fluid retention

Origin:

late Middle English: via Old French from late Latin lethargia, from Greek lēthargia, from lēthargos 'forgetful', from the base of lanthanesthai 'forget'






veer1

Pronunciation: /vɪə/

Definition of veer



verb

[no object, with adverbial of direction]
  • change direction suddenly:an oil tanker that had veered off course
  • suddenly change an opinion, subject, type of behaviour, etc.:the conversation eventually veered away from theatrical things
  • (of the wind) change direction clockwise around the points of the compass:the wind veered a pointThe opposite of back.

noun

  • 1a sudden change of direction.
  • 2 American Football an offensive play using a modified T-formation with a split backfield, which allows the quarterback the option of passing to the fullback, pitching to a running back, or running with the ball.

Origin:

late 16th century: from French virer, perhaps from an alteration of Latin gyrare (see gyrate)

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