Maybe Leptin Is the Culprit
July 8, 2008
So, you ate less and exercised more and lost weight. But now the pounds are piling back on. You're hungrier than ever, and you can't seem to resist food. Once again, it's all your fault, right?
Wrong. Blame evolution, and the fact that for the vast majority of human history, famine was a bigger threat than flab. Even your seeming lack of will power is part of a complex biological system that drives humans who have lost weight to regain it, according to new brain-scan research by scientists at Columbia University Medical Center.
“You can’t find many places as beautiful as this, covered by trees and bamboo,” said Lin Sunbao, who moved from Fuqing to Sanming. “We use water from mountain streams. And because our water is better, it’s harder to get disease.”
This is one of the solutions to the water crisis in China: to seek out virgin territory and essentially start the cycle all over again. And that worries scientists, who say aquaculture in China is not just a victim of water pollution but a culprit with a severe environmental legacy.
calf (ANIMAL) Show phonetics
noun [C] plural calves
a young cow, or the young of various other large mammals such as elephants and whales
See also calve.━━ n. （pl. calves ） 子牛; （象・鯨・アザラシなどの）子; 〔話〕 愚か［無器用］な若者; ＝calfskin; （氷山の）氷塊.
《中英對照讀新聞》 My three moms: Dolphin calf being nursed by 3 females at Baltimore aquarium 三娘育子：3隻母海豚哺育巴爾的摩水族館的幼海豚A two-month old dolphin calf at the National Aquarium is being nursed by three females, the aquarium announced.
kill the fatted calf （永く不在だった人に）特別のごちそうを用意する, とびきり歓待する.
to have a special celebration for someone who has been away for a long time
with [in] calf （動物が）子をはらんで.
If a cow is in calf, it is pregnant. calf love 幼い恋.
calf-length Show phonetics
describes clothing or boots that end at the middle point between the foot and the knee:
a calf-length skirt
1 someone who has done something wrong:
Police hope the public will help them to find the culprits.
2 a fact or situation that is the reason for something bad happening:
Children in this country are getting much too fat, and sugar and sweets are the main culprits.
Leptin (Greek leptos meaning thin)
肥胖荷爾蒙是一種由身體的脂肪組織adipose tissue所分泌的蛋白質荷爾蒙。編碼基因ob，缺失ob基因的大鼠，食慾旺盛，體重顯著增加，導致病態肥胖。它在身體的濃度使腦部知道現時身體上的脂肪數量，藉以控制食慾及新陳代謝的速率。肥胖荷爾蒙透過抑制體內神經肽Y neuropeptide Y (NPY)及刺鼠肽基因相關蛋白agouti-related peptide (AgRP)的活躍程度，從而使體內另一種荷爾蒙黑色素細胞刺激激素alpha-melanocortin stimulating hormone (α-MSH)的活躍情度增強。