2017年7月12日 星期三

calve, calf, culprit, Leptin




Can't Keep the Weight Off?
Maybe Leptin Is the Culprit
July 8, 2008
So, you ate less and exercised more and lost weight. But now the pounds are piling back on. You're hungrier than ever, and you can't seem to resist food. Once again, it's all your fault, right?
Wrong. Blame evolution, and the fact that for the vast majority of human history, famine was a bigger threat than flab. Even your seeming lack of will power is part of a complex biological system that drives humans who have lost weight to regain it, according to new brain-scan research by scientists at Columbia University Medical Center.

“You can’t find many places as beautiful as this, covered by trees and bamboo,” said Lin Sunbao, who moved from Fuqing to Sanming. “We use water from mountain streams. And because our water is better, it’s harder to get disease.”
This is one of the solutions to the water crisis in China: to seek out virgin territory and essentially start the cycle all over again. And that worries scientists, who say aquaculture in China is not just a victim of water pollution but a culprit with a severe environmental legacy.

calve
kɑːv/
verb
  1. 1.
    (of cows and certain other large animals) give birth to a calf.

    "Galloway cows have wide pelvises and calve easily"
  2. 2.
    (of an iceberg or glacier) split and shed (a smaller mass of ice).

    "glaciers were calving icebergs directly into the sea"

calf (ANIMAL) Show phonetics
noun [C] plural calves
a young cow, or the young of various other large mammals such as elephants and whales
See also calve.━━ n. (pl. calves  ) 子牛; (象・鯨・アザラシなどの)子; 〔話〕 愚か[無器用]な若者; =calfskin; (氷山の)氷塊.

《中英對照讀新聞》 My three moms: Dolphin calf being nursed by 3 females at Baltimore aquarium 三娘育子:3隻母海豚哺育巴爾的摩水族館的幼海豚A two-month old dolphin calf at the National Aquarium is being nursed by three females, the aquarium announced.
國家水族館宣布,該水族館的1隻2個月大的幼海豚,現由3隻母海豚哺育。◎張沛元



 kill the fatted calf (永く不在だった人に)特別のごちそうを用意する, とびきり歓待する.
to have a special celebration for someone who has been away for a long time

 with [in] calf (動物が)子をはらんで.
If a cow is in calf, it is pregnant. calf love 幼い恋.
 calf・skin 子牛の皮.

calf-length Show phonetics
adjective
describes clothing or boots that end at the middle point between the foot and the knee:
a calf-length skirt

culprit
 
1 someone who has done something wrong:
Police hope the public will help them to find the culprits.

2 a fact or situation that is the reason for something bad happening:
Children in this country are getting much too fat, and sugar and sweets are the main culprits.


Leptin
(Greek leptos meaning thin)


肥胖荷爾蒙(Leptin),又名瘦素肥胖回饋荷爾蒙,是一種新近發現的蛋白質荷爾蒙。它的功用是加快生物的新陳代謝,抑制食慾,控制體重。


肥胖荷爾蒙是一種由身體的脂肪組織adipose tissue所分泌的蛋白質荷爾蒙。編碼基因ob,缺失ob基因的大鼠,食慾旺盛,體重顯著增加,導致病態肥胖。它在身體的濃度使腦部知道現時身體上的脂肪數量,藉以控制食慾及新陳代謝的速率。肥胖荷爾蒙透過抑制體內神經肽Y neuropeptide Y (NPY)及刺鼠肽基因相關蛋白agouti-related peptide (AgRP)的活躍程度,從而使體內另一種荷爾蒙黑色素細胞刺激激素alpha-melanocortin stimulating hormone (α-MSH)的活躍情度增強。

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