2016年10月6日 星期四

slight, accolade, cult, cultist, hoi polloi, commonalty, yoga, yoke, aum,

 Infographic 11 in our ‪#‎Dailychart‬ Advent calendar looks at what Europeans think of each other and exposes lingering stereotyping, some historical mistrust and a bit of modern-day resentment about economic power. When asked to name the most trustworthy nation, every country voted for Germany except for the Greeks. Instead, they awarded themselves that accolade, while casting Germany as the most arrogant http://econ.st/J5Ngnd

  Youth at the Head of the Classroom
Charter schools are developing what amounts to a youth cult in which teaching for two to five years is seen as acceptable, and even desirable.

Tseng captures 2nd straight Player of the Year award
Fox News
Yang Mei, Taoyuan, Taiwan – Yani Tseng added yet another accolade to an already long list on Tuesday, winning her second straight LPGA Player of the Year award. Tseng was presented with the honor just before the inaugural Sunrise LPGA Championship in ...

How famous was Austen in her lifetime?
Although Jane Austen saw some of her works published and favorably received, she herself remained a relative unknown in the literary world during her lifetime. The books were published anonymously, and Austen's name was only attached to them late in 1817, several months after her death. The accolades came quickly and Jane Austen's name became one of the most famous in English literature. Fan clubs for the writer abound; some of the most devout Austen cultists even took her name, calling themselves Janeites. Originally, the self-proclaimed sophisticated Janeites aimed to distinguish themselves from the hoi polloi who just loved her stories. Nowadays, the term is more all-inclusive, referring to any readers who are obsessed with Austen and her works. Jane Austen was born on December 16, 1775.

"Nobody minds having what is too good for them." — Jane Austen

hoi polloi
(hoi' pə-loi') pronunciation
The common people; the masses.

[Greek, the many : hoi, nominative pl. of ho, the + polloi, nominative pl. of polus, many.]
USAGE NOTE Hoi polloi is a borrowing of the Greek phrase hoi polloi, consisting of hoi, meaning "the" and used before a plural, and polloi, the plural of polus, "many." In Greek hoi polloi had a special sense, "the greater number, the people, the commonalty, the masses." This phrase has generally expressed this meaning in English since its first recorded instance, in an 1837 work by James Fenimore Cooper. Hoi polloi is sometimes incorrectly used to mean "the elite," possibly because it is reminiscent of high and mighty or because it sounds like hoity-toity. • Since the Greek phrase includes an article, some critics have argued that the phrase the hoi polloi is redundant. But phrases borrowed from other languages are often reanalyzed in English as single words. For example, a number of Arabic noun phrases were borrowed into English as simple nouns. The Arabic element al- means "the," and appears in English nouns such as alcohol and alchemy. Thus, since no one would consider a phrase such as "the alcohol" to be redundant, criticizing the hoi polloi on similar grounds seems pedantic.

日本邪教奥姆真理教1995年3月20日制造东京地铁毒气杀人事件后﹐日本警察当局先后逮捕了该 ... 据路透社报道,1994年东京地铁沙林毒气事件导致144人中毒,7人死亡。 ..... 日奥姆真理教前头目被判终身监禁

Tokyo marks 15th anniversary of subway gas attack
Washington Post
Tokyo subway workers observed a moment of silence Saturday to mark the 15th anniversary of a fatal nerve gas attack, Japan's deadliest act of domestic ...

Terrorism | 19.03.2010
15 years since nerve gas attack on Tokyo subway

On March 20, 1995 the Aum cult attacked passengers on the Tokyo subway. A liquid nerve agent was placed in five trains during rush hour. At least 12 people died; thousands were injured. The cult leader is on death row.

Previously, the number of people thought to have been injured in the Tokyo subway attack of 1995 was around 5,500 but recently Japan’s National Police Agency placed the number at over 6,000.
The attack was carried out by members of a cult called Aum Supreme Truth, who planted plastic bags containing sarin, a nerve gas, in five underground trains.
"The group was founded in the mid-1980s," explains Verena Blechinger-Talcott, an expert on Japanese politics at the Free University of Berlin. "It originally started out as a yoga class. The name Aum comes from a word in Buddhism, the Sanskrit syllable which represents the universe."
The cult was based on a combination of Buddhist and Christian teachings and also integrated science fiction. Blechinger says the group was inspired by a manga cartoon called "Starship Yamato" that was popular in the 1970s and 80s and told the story of aliens coming to earth.
Before the 1995 attack, the group worked on biological and chemical warfare techniques and recruited scientists. Experiments included planting substances in subways and spraying anthrax in the air.
Blechinger says the group also looked into cooperating with Russian nuclear labs. "The whole idea was that these were just preparations for some future attacks they wanted to perform. The idea of the group was to bring about the end of the world and cause the supreme forces that are somewhere out in the universe, those aliens, to come and save the world."
The group’s leader, who goes by the alias Shoko Asahara, had up to 10,000 followers at the cult's peak, many of whom lived in cult compounds.
Religion is important in Japanese society
Aum is banned in certain countries, including Russia, but not in Japan, which now has over 300 "new religions". Blechinger says religion and syncretism is very important in Japanese society.
"The group was not officially banned and is still active. They changed their name in 2000 because of the attacks, and are now called ‘Aleph’, which is the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet. Again it means the first, the universal letter and they still have about 1,600 members."
The Japanese constitution protects religious practice. But after the attacks, a few small changes were introduced.
"It is still a touchy subject," says Blechinger. "There is the distrust in new religious cults, but overall, Japan is a very tolerant society, especially toward religious groups. It is considered a private thing, so as long as there are no signs that indeed there is a danger for society, there wouldn’t be public investigations into cults."
Shoko Asahara, the leader of the Aum Shinri Kyo cult, is on death rowBildunterschrift: Großansicht des Bildes mit der Bildunterschrift: Shoko Asahara, the leader of the Aum Shinri Kyo cult, is on death rowAsahara, the cult’s leader, and 12 other high-ranking members are now on death row for an array of charges. 10 have exhausted their appeals. Several Aum members are still on the run.
Blechinger points out although there is an increasingly "strong anti-death penalty movement, the public is largely for the death penalty", especially when people such as Asahara are awaiting execution.
Author: Sarah Berning
Editor: Anne Thomas

For Professor, Fury Just Beneath the Surface

Over the years, Amy Bishop, arrested last week in the shooting of six faculty members, had shown evidence that a small slight could set off a disproportionate reaction.

At the risk of slighting others, let me mentioned....

A Myanmar court has sentenced a Dutch tourist to three months in prison for pulling the plug on a late-night sermon he said was disturbing his sleep. He's the latest foreigner legally sanctioned for slighting Buddhism.

slight (INSULT)
verb [T]
to insult someone by not paying them any attention or treating them as if they are not important:
I felt slighted when my boss thanked everyone but me for their hard work.

noun [C]
when a person fails to pay attention to someone or to treat them with the respect that they deserve:
I regarded her failure to acknowledge my greeting as a slight.

I'm afraid I just didn't recognize him - I hope he didn't feel slighted.


adj., slight·er, slight·est.
  1. Small in size, degree, or amount: a slight tilt; a slight surplus.
  2. Lacking strength, substance, or solidity; frail: a slight foundation; slight evidence.
  3. Of small importance or consideration; trifling: slight matters.
  4. Small and slender in build or construction; delicate.
tr.v., slight·ed, slight·ing, slights.
  1. To treat as of small importance; make light of.
  2. To treat with discourteous reserve or inattention.
  3. To do negligently or thoughtlessly; scant.
  1. The act or an instance of slighting.
  2. A deliberate discourtesy; a snub: "It is easier to recount grievances and slights than it is to set down a broad redress of such grievances and slights" (Elizabeth Kenny).
[Middle English, slender, smooth, possibly of Scandinavian origin.]
slightness slight'ness n.

Om2 Aum (ōm) pronunciation
n. Hinduism & Buddhism
The supreme and most sacred syllable, consisting in Sanskrit of the three sounds (a), (u), and (m), representing various fundamental triads and believed to be the spoken essence of the universe. It is uttered as a mantra and in affirmations and blessings.

[Sanskrit om, aum.]
(') pronunciation
  1. also Yoga A Hindu discipline aimed at training the consciousness for a state of perfect spiritual insight and tranquillity.
  2. A system of exercises practiced as part of this discipline to promote control of the body and mind.
[Hindi, from Sanskrit yogaḥ, union, joining.]

Yoga and Sex Scandals: No Surprise Here


Since the baby boomers discovered yoga, the arousal, sweating, heavy breathing and states of undress that characterize yoga classes have led to predictable results.

yogic yo'gic (-gĭk) adj.
  • [jóugə]
[名][U]((時にY-))《ヒンズー教》瑜伽(ゆが), ヨーガ
yogas of ...
[ヒンディ語←サンスクリットyoga(結合). △YOKE1


  • 発音記号[jóuk]
(1) くびき:1対の牛などを首の所で連結するための横木
put the oxen to the yoke
(2) (複 〜)(くびきをかけた)1対の牛[荷車用動物]
four yoke of oxen
2 (形や用途が)くびきに似たもの;てんびん棒, にない棒;つり鐘をつる横木;《機械》わく, (ダイナモの)継鉄;(飛行機の)二重ハンドル;《海事》横舵柄(へい);(クレーンの)ヨーク(spreader beam)
She brought water from the well on a yoke.
3 ((the 〜))服従[隷属, 屈従]の印[象徴];束縛, かせ, 重圧;支配
pass [come] under the yoke
征服される, 屈服する
put a person under the yoke
cast [fling, shake, throw] off the yoke of ...
4 ヨーク:衣服の身ごろやスカートの上部に入れる切り替え(布).
5 《建築》かすがい, (特に)窓上枠(うわわく);(枝管を本管に連結する)Y継ぎ手.
6 《古代ローマ》槍門(そうもん):槍(やり)を鳥居形に組んだもので, 勝者が敗者を屈服のあかしとしてくぐらせた.
7 ((まれ))きずな, 結びつけるもの(bond).
1 〈牛・馬に〉くびきをかける;〈2匹の牛・馬を〉くびきでつなぐ((together)).
2 〈牛・馬を〉すき車につける;〈すき・車に〉牛・馬などをつける;〈牛・馬を〉(すき・車に)つける((up/to ...)).
3 ((文))〈人・考えなどを〉いっしょにする, 結合する.
4 ((廃))…を服従[従属, 隷属]させる.
━━(自)結合する, いっしょになる;共に働く;つり合う, 似合う
yoke well
yoke together
[古英語geoc. サンスクリットyoga(結合)と同系. △YOGA


  • 1an award or privilege granted as a special honour or as an acknowledgement of merit:the hotel has won numerous accolades
  • an expression of praise or admiration: poignant accolades and urgent testimonials of thanks
  • 2a touch on a person’s shoulders with a sword at the bestowing of a knighthood.


early 17th century: from French, from Provençal acolada, literally 'embrace around the neck (when bestowing knighthood)', from Latin ad- 'at, to' + collum 'neck'
  • [ǽkəlèid]
1 ナイトの爵位授与(式);(ナイト爵位授与式における)剣での軽打
receive the accolade
confer the accolade on ...
2 ((形式))褒賞(ほうしょう)(award);栄誉(honor);賞賛
receive [win] accolades from ...
3 《音楽》アッコラード:2つ以上の譜表をつなぐ連結かっこ.
━━[動](他)…を賞賛する, に栄誉を与える.

Surgery: Basic Science And Clinical Evidence - Google Books Result

books.google.com/books?isbn=0387308008...Jeffrey A. Norton, Philip S. Barie, Randall Bollinger - 2008 - Medical - 2442 pages
This new Royal Commonality of Barber-Surgeons received all the previous powers granted under past British sovereigns and more. The new charter declared ...


  • 発音記号[kɑ'mənəlti | kɔ'm-]
1 ((the 〜))((集合的))(特に僧職・貴族に対して)平民, 庶民;一般大衆.
2 ((しばしばthe 〜))法人;社会, 共同体;その構成員.


Pronunciation: /kʌlt/
Translate cult | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish


  • 1a system of religious veneration and devotion directed towards a particular figure or object:the cult of St Olaf
  • a relatively small group of people having religious beliefs or practices regarded by others as strange or as imposing excessive control over members:a network of Satan-worshipping cults
  • a misplaced or excessive admiration for a particular thing:the cult of the pursuit of money as an end in itself
  • 2a person or thing that is popular or fashionable among a particular group or section of society:the series has become a bit of a cult in the UK [as modifier]:a cult film













early 17th century (originally denoting homage paid to a divinity): from French culte or Latin cultus 'worship', from cult- 'inhabited, cultivated, worshipped', from the verb colere