2016年8月7日 星期日

hyphen, hyphenated, obdurate, Hard-hearted, resurrect, palely, seditious zest

“This is not the land of cowards. We do not turn against each other. We embrace each other. And we do not allow people to use religion to harm those who righteously worship in peace.”

New Yorkers from more than 80 countries marched through downtown Brooklyn on Sunday in solidarity with Muslim-American veterans.

“For the great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie — deliberate, contrived, and dishonest — but the myth — persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic.” — U.S. President John F. Kennedy, Yale Commencement, June 11, 1962 ‪#‎TBT‬
Fossil Fuels and New Energy
On Wednesday, TNT begins a resurrected “Dallas” that is palely faithful to the original without its seditious zest.

To be fair on Standard Oil, it could also be a pretty nasty operator when it chose. Rockefeller conspired with railway companies to ensure that his rivals would pay much higher freight charges than he did, and that their payments would secretly cross-subsidise discounts for Standard Oil. That cost disadvantage left independent refiners with a choice between going bust over time, or selling out to Standard Oil for the scrap value of their plant. And the more Standard Oil grew, the more people's feet it stepped on. If it cut prices, competitors complained about unfair competition. If it raised prices, consumers complained about gouging. A top Standard Oil manager, William Warden, wrote in 1887 that the firm, albeit "a success unparalleled in commercial history", was viewed almost everywhere as "the representative of all that is evil, hard hearted, oppressive [and] cruel."

But his paintings failed to impress the English aristocracy in Rome; and when he moved to Naples in the hope of currying favour with the famous collector Sir William Hamilton, he was snubbed. His response seems to have been an obdurate resignation: 'Looking upon myself as deserted by my Countrymen - the depression of my Spirits was such, that I endeavoured avoiding as much as possible those places where I was likely to meet them.'

In Uganda construction will shortly begin on a new 250 megawatt hydropower dam. After 13 years of seeing plans delayed by corruption allegations, obdurate spirits and opposition from environmental lobbyists, all that remains is for the foreign financiers to hand over the promised cash. The east African country relies almost entirely on two existing dams at the source of the River Nile for all its energy needs. But drastically reduced water levels have drastically cast the country into darkness. Critics of the scheme question the sense in deepening the country's dependency on one stretch of river. (Reporter: Richard Lough)


Pronunciation: /ˈhʌɪf(ə)n/ 


The sign -, used to join words to indicate that they have a combined meaning or that they are linked in the grammar of a sentence (as in a pick-me-uprock-forming minerals), to indicate the division of a word at the end of a line, or to indicate a missing element (as inshort- and long-term).

obdurate (OB-doo-rit, -dyoo-)

1. Stubborn: not easily moved.
2. Hard-hearted: resistant to emotions.

From Latin obdurare (to harden), from durus (hard). Ultimately from the Indo-European root deru- (to be firm) that's the source of such other words as truth, trust, betroth, tree, endure, druid, during, durable, duress, trow, and indurate.

"The White Paper outlines no strategy to end government's obdurate resistance to proper pricing of passenger services." — Raghu Dayal; Whither is Fled, Railways' Visionary Gleam? The Economic Times (New Delhi, India); Feb 23, 2010.




Lacking mercy; incapable of pity.


The first mention in print in English of the term 'hard-hearted' is in Geoffrey Chaucer's 1374 translation of Consolation of Philosophy, the 6th century treatise by the Roman philosopher Anicius Boethius:
Ne no tere ne wette his face, but he was so hard-herted.
The term reflects the mediaeval belief that the heart was the organ that controlled one's thoughts and feelings - there being no understanding of the functioning of the brain at that time. The belief was that the condition of the heart reflected the senses in a direct and literal way. We have retained several mediaeval expressions that we now see as entirely figurative but which were previously akin to a medical diagnosis:
- Cold-hearted
- Light-hearted
- Broken-hearted
- Half-hearted
- Hard-hearted
- Faint-hearted
- Whole-hearted
The last on that list, whole-hearted, is atypical in that it is a 19th century term and derives from a different meaning of 'hearted', i.e. 'courageous;spirited'.
The transition from literal to figurative meaning is matched by the transition in the spelling of the terms. Initially, the two words were usually written separately, then later as a hyphenated pair and finally as a single word. Someone with a 'light heart' was initially 'light hearted', later 'light-hearted' and more recently 'lighthearted' - for example:
John Palsgrave's dictionary Lesclarcissement de la Langue Francoyse, 1530: "Lyght herted or mery, alaigre."
William Cowper's poem The Task, 1785: "He whistles as he goes, light-hearted wretch, Cold and yet cheerful."
Wilkie Collins's novel Queen of Hearts, 1859: "Mrs. Knifton began to make jokes about it, in her lighthearted way."
Hard hearted HannahThe 15th century literal way of thinking (and spelling) was resurrected in the 1920s in the popular Tin-Pan Alley song Hard Hearted Hannah:
They call her Hard Hearted Hannah,
The vamp of Savannah,
The meanest gal in town;
Leather is tough, but Hannah's heart is tougher,
She's a gal who loves to see men suffer!
hard-heartedOf course, to be 'hearted' these days we just need a T-shirt. The 'I heart NY' message began being used in the USA in the 1980s and, in January 2011, the OED defined a new meaning of the verb heart as "To love; to be fond of: - originally with reference to logos using the symbol of a heart to denote the verb 'love'", which is as close as we can get to an acceptance that the symbol is now part of the language.


  • 発音記号[rèzərékt]
1 〈死者を〉よみがえらせる.
2 〈習慣などを〉復活させる;〈記憶などを〉呼び戻す.
3 〈死体などを〉掘り出す.


  • 発音記号[sidíʃəs]
  • [形]((形式))〈言葉・運動が〉反乱[暴動]的な;〈人が〉扇動的な
seditious harangue
a seditious demagogue