2015年12月2日 星期三

unprecedented, precedent, prior, prioress, superlative. stare decisis, countervail


The scandal over leaked information on Vatican finances heats up.



5 people stand trial in the Vatican over the leak of confidential documents…
BLOOMBERG.COM

there are substantial precedents for using interactive  media in training


It sets an unfortunate precedent.


Political Dictionary: stare decisis 遵循前例
Latin phrase, meaning ‘stand by past decisions’. Foundation of legal application of precedent, where a judicial decision on one case applies to all cases with similar principles.
Stare decisis (Latin: [ˈstaːre deːˈkiːsiːs], Anglicisation: [ˈsteɹɪ diˈsaɪsɪs], "to stand by things decided") is a Latin legal term, used in common law systems to express the notion that prior court decisions must be recognized as precedents, according to case law. More fully, the legal term is "stare decisis et non quieta movere" meaning "stand by decisions and do not move that which is quiet" (the phrase "quieta non movere" is itself a famous maxim akin to "let sleeping dogs lie"). In the United States, which uses a common law system in its federal courts, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has stated:Wikipedia article "Stare decisis".

unprecedented magnitude of his success.





Intervention Is Bold, but Has a Basis in History By STEVE LOHR
The government’s plan to take ownership stakes in American banks is an exceptional step, but not an unprecedented one.


French Trader Is Remembered as Mr. Average 

By DOREEN CARVAJAL and CAROLINE BROTHERS
Until Jérôme Kerviel was charged in an unprecedented banking fraud, there was nothing superlative about him.


unprecedented

adj.
Having no previous example: unprecedented economic growth.
unprecedentedly un·prec'e·dent'ed·ly adv.


superlative
adj.
  1. Of the highest order, quality, or degree; surpassing or superior to all others.
  2. Excessive or exaggerated.
  3. Grammar. Of, relating to, or being the extreme degree of comparison of an adjective or adverb, as in best or brightest.
n.
  1. Something of the highest possible excellence.
  2. The highest degree; the acme.
  3. Grammar.
    1. The superlative degree.
    2. An adjective or adverb expressing the superlative degree, as in brightest, the superlative of the adjective bright, or most brightly, the superlative of the adverb brightly.
[Middle English superlatif, from Old French, from Late Latin superlātīvus, from Latin superlātus, past participle of superferre, to carry over a person or thing, exaggerate : super-, super- + lātus, past participle of ferre, to carry.]
superlatively su·per'la·tive·ly adv.

 



━━ a. 最高の; 【文法】(the ~) 最上級の; 大げさな.
━━ n. 最高の人[もの], 極致; 【文法】最上級.
 speak [talk] in superlatives 誇張して話す.
 superlative degree 【文法】(the ~) 最上級.
 su・per・la・tive・ly ━━ ad.
 su・per・la・tive・ness ━━ n.


"In an initiative to provide superlative value to its customers, seepex has adopted a dedicated lean manufacturing model to drive manufacturing efficiencies ...


As a host, Susie Essman may be nothing like your Aunt Esther, and the matzo ball soup won’t be like bubbe’s, but tonight’s alternative Passover event has one superlative benefit: no guilt.


They know what the subject is from the catalogue! -- Yet it is not true, as Lord Byron asserts, that execution is everything, and the class or subject nothing. The highest subjects, equally well executed (which, however, rarely happens), are the best. But the power of execution, the manner of seeing nature, is one thing, and may be so superlative (if you are only able to judge of it) as to countervail every disadvantage of subject.

countervail

v.-vailed-vail·ing-vailsv.tr.
  1. To act against with equal force; counteract.
  2. To compensate for; offset.
v.intr.
To act against an often detrimental influence or power.
[Middle English countrevaillen, from Old French contrevaloir, contrevail- : contre-, counter- + valoir, to be worth (from Latin valēre, to be strong).]



unprecedented

Line breaks: un|pre¦ce¦dent¦ed
Pronunciation: /ʌnˈprɛsɪdɛntɪd/




Definition of unprecedented in English:

ADJECTIVE

Never done or known before:the government took the unprecedented step ofreleasing confidential correspondence

 precedent

ADJECTIVE

Pronunciation: /prɪˈsiːd(ə)nt, ˈprɛsɪ-/
  
Preceding in time, order, or importance:a precedent case

precedent
(prĕs'ĭ-dənt)
n. An act or instance that may be used as an example in dealing with subsequent similar instances.Law. A judicial decision that may be used as a standard in subsequent similar cases: a landmark decision that set a legal precedent. Convention or custom arising from long practice: The President followed historical precedent in forming the Cabinet.
adj. (prĭ-sēd'nt, prĕs'ĭ-dənt)

[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin praecēdēns, praecēdent-, present participle of praecēdere, to go before. See precede.]

Company Overview Orangina SAS engages in manufacturing, marketing, and distributing soft drinks. The company provides carbonated soft drinks, mineral waters, and still drinks under various brand names. It offers its products in France, Spain, Germany, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Algeria, Croatia, and the Middle East. Orangina SAS was formerly known as Orangina Schweppes Holding. The company was founded in 1951 and is based in Paris, France. It has bottling operations in Germany, Spain, Portugal, and Belgium. Orangina SAS is a prior subsidiary of Cadbury Schweppes plc.


prior
adj. Preceding in time or order: “[They] insist that foreign vessels seeking access obtain prior approval” (Seymour M. Hersh). Preceding in importance or value: a prior consideration.[Latin. See prior2.]priorly pri'or·ly adv.
pri·or  2 (prī'ər)
n. A monastic officer in charge of a priory or ranking next below the abbot of an abbey. One of the ruling magistrates of the medieval Italian republic of Florence.[Middle English priour, from Old English and Old French prior, both from Medieval Latin, from Latin, superior.]
priorate pri'or·ate (-ĭt) or pri'or·ship' (-shĭp') n.


prioress

Syllabification: (pri·or·ess)
Pronunciation: /ˈprīərəs/

noun

  • a woman who is head of a house of certain orders of nuns.
  • the woman next in rank below an abbess.
(prī'ə-rē) pronunciation
n., pl., -ies.
A monastery governed by a prior or a convent governed by a prioress.






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