2011年12月2日 星期五

isms, anachronism , hurdle, prig, anachronistic

Cucumber sandwiches, silver pots filled with exotic blends, decorative porcelain and snowy-white scones topped off with cream and sweet strawberry conserve—the ceremony of taking afternoon tea all seems a little anachronistic in our high-speed, coffee and Wi-Fi culture. Yet, for anyone who has paid a visit to the Palm Court at the Ritz London or the Imperial Hotel in Vienna, they will have witnessed the theater of footmen, chandeliers and silver trays—a little pocket of Edwardian tradition kept alive by a few gentle folk.
Attacking Democrats, but Not Without Errors

The Republican presidential candidates’ arguments ran into factual hurdles during a debate on Wednesday night.


Game Makers Battle China's Pirates

Videogame companies are rushing to tap China's market, but many find that a slow-moving bureaucracy and rampant piracy remain significant hurdles.


Of course, the Dalai Lama, who has been trying to diminish his political role and was not present during this week’s discussions, might also change his mind. His peaceable methods have gained the world’s respect; nothing more. And the world’s respect for Tibetan nationalist aspirations is dwindling: as Britain demonstrated last month, when it said its long failure to recognise full Chinese sovereignty over Tibet was “anachronistic”.

anachronism –時代錯誤』用例多:

"We have made no decision to terminate our pension plans," said Mr. Miller, who has overseen the bankruptcies of several companies and, in the case of Bethlehem Steel Corp., opted to terminate that pension. He said he felt a "moral obligation" not to terminate the plan, and added that there is a "higher hurdle to terminate a pension plan," than is widely believed.

However, Mr. Miller called such traditional pension plans, known as defined-benefit plans, an "anachronism" that is going through a "slow agonizing death."

As buyout firms cast an eye over Gap and the retailer's interim chief executive, Robert Fisher, passes out memos on to improve business, The New York Times looks at at the anachronism that is the Gap: a single chain, selling only its own brand, with one point of view, chasing shoppers from birth to death.

In an era of niches, when exclusion is as vital as inclusion, Gap has become an anachronism: a single chain, selling only its own brand.



-ism suffix
used to form nouns which describe social, political or religious beliefs, studies or ways of behaving:
sexism
feminism
Buddhism

-ism suffix
an example of typical behaviour:
That expression was a real Taylor-ism (= an example of behaving or speaking like
Taylor).

ism noun [C] INFORMAL MAINLY HUMOROUS
a set of beliefs, especially ones that you disapprove of:
Thatcher is unique among her predecessors in having given the English language a brand new ism, created from her own name.

2004 年

黃邦傑著"------ism"都譯作"……主義"嗎? (收入 譯藝譚 台北:書林 1998, pp .26-29)

歸納分類為:

. 關於學說 尤其哲學宗教方面中譯除接以"主義"外 大都是"論" "說" 如relativism—相對論 atomism 原子說

. 關於醫學的病態方面 中譯多接以"病""中毒" "症"

hydragyrism 汞中毒/rheumatism風濕病/giantism巨大其畸形症/plutonism還射線傷/negativism違 ?/exhibitionism裸體病態/ eroembotism飛行員高空症/terantsm 跳舞狂

. 關於動物 生化物理方面 中譯多接以"性能""作用" "現象

. 關於語言方面 中譯多接以"語風""習語" "方式等"

. 關於其他方面 中譯的表達多種多樣:

anachronism –時代錯誤/simplism—過份簡單化/methodism--—墨守成規/fanaticism—狂熱/priggism—沾沾自喜/ostracism—流放/paternalism—家長式統治(作風)/vocalism—聲樂技巧/factionalism—派別活動/bimetallism—金銀復(sic 應為複)本位制/tourism—旅遊(業)/labourism—工黨政策


prig

(prĭg) pronunciation
n.
  1. A person who demonstrates an exaggerated conformity or propriety, especially in an irritatingly arrogant or smug manner.
  2. Chiefly British. A petty thief or pickpocket.
  3. Archaic. A conceited dandy; a fop.
tr.v. Chiefly British, prigged, prig·ging, prigs.
To steal or pilfer.

[Origin unknown.]

priggery prig'ger·y n.
priggish prig'gish adj.
priggishly prig'gish·ly adv.
priggishness prig'gish·ness n.





hurdle
n.

  1. Sports.
    1. A light portable barrier over which competitors must leap in certain races.
    2. hurdles A race in which a series of such barriers must be jumped without the competitors' breaking their stride.
    3. A leaping step made off one foot as means of maximizing spring at the end of an approach, as to a dive.
  2. An obstacle or difficulty to be overcome: the last hurdle before graduation.
  3. Chiefly British. A portable framework made of intertwined branches or wattle and used for temporary fencing.
  4. Chiefly British. A frame or sledge on which condemned persons were dragged to execution.

v., -dled, -dling, -dles. v.tr.
  1. To leap over (a barrier) in or as if in a race.
  2. To overcome or deal with successfully; surmount: hurdle a problem.
v.intr.
To leap over a barrier or other obstacle.

[Middle English hurdel, portable panel for temporary fences, from Old English hyrdel.]


1 則留言:

hanching chung 提到...

ex・hi・bi・tion・ism n. 自己宣伝癖; 【医】露出症.