2016年6月23日 星期四

incisive, trenchant, biting, cutting, cutting-edge, crisp, crunchy

"When you're making something, you're in a different state. You go into a deep level of concentration, to the point where you're not self-conscious anymore, it's just flowing out of you."
David Rakoff takes us on a bitingly funny grand tour of our culture of excess. Whether he is contrasting the elegance of one of the last flights of the supersonic Concorde with the good-times-and-chicken-wings populism of Hooters Air; working as a cab⋯⋯

Insects offer crunchy solutions to boosting the food supply and feeding people sustainably http://econ.st/1DFeSp0
By turns tender and trenchant, Adichie’s third novel takes on the comedy and tragedy of American race relations from the perspective of a young Nigerian immigrant.

 E-READERS HAVE come a long way since the first Kindle hit the market six years ago. But the devices, which mimic paper using what's known as an E Ink screen, still require a measure of compromise from their converts. The text on most devices—even the flagship Kindle and Nook—has never been as crisp as print. Electronic page turns, while quick, have a slight lag. And the limited choice of fonts—the Kindle Paperwhite, for example, lets you pick from only six—can make for pages whose design recalls the early days of the World Wide Web.

Dreaming of the California Design Scene

"A Handbook of California Design," a new book edited by Bobbye Tigerman, is an incisive history of a design scene from the Depression to 1965.

One Comic, Twice the Laughs
Two comic personalities seemed to coexist within George Carlin during his preposterously long and fertile career. Both Carlins could amuse and both could be trenchant, but each came at his target from wildly different angles.
(By Paul Farhi, The Washington Post)

Dow Jones yesterday announced the closure of the Far Eastern Economic Review, which gained a reputation for incisive business and political reporting over its six decades of publishing.
道琼斯公司(Dow Jones)昨日宣布停刊旗下杂志《远东经济评论》(Far Eastern Economic Review)。这份杂志出版60年来,以深刻的商业和政治报道而闻名。

IBM cools computer chips with miniature water pipes
Daily Mail - UK
By Daily Mail Reporter It might seem foolish to combine water with electric circuits, but IBM have used cutting edge technology to cool the next generation ...

the cutting edge noun [S]
the most recent stage of development in a particular type of work or activity:
a company at the cutting edge of mobile communications technology

adjective [before noun]
very modern and with all the newest features:
cutting-edge design/technology

Penetrating, clear, and sharp, as in operation or expression: an incisive mind; incisive comments.
incisively in·ci'sive·ly adv.
incisiveness in·ci'sive·ness n.
SYNONYMS incisive, trenchant, biting, cutting, crisp. These adjectives refer to keenness and forcefulness of thought, expression, or intellect. Incisive and trenchant suggest penetration to the heart of a subject and clear, sharp, and vigorous expression: an incisive report; trenchant wit. Biting and cutting often have a sarcastic or sardonic quality capable of wounding or stinging: "Biting remarks revealed her attitude of contempt" (D.H. Lawrence). "He can say the driest, most cutting things in the quietest of tones" (Charlotte Brontë). Crisp suggests clarity, conciseness, and briskness: a crisp retort.


Pronunciation: /ˈbʌɪtɪŋ/ 


1(Of insects and certain other animals) able to wound the skin with a sting or fangs:cream to ward off biting insects
2(Of wind or cold) so cold as to be painful:he leant forward to protect himself against the biting wind
2.1(Of wit or criticismharsh or cruel:his biting satire on corruption and power


Pronunciation: /ˈtrɛn(t)ʃ(ə)nt/
Translate trenchant | into Italian


  • 1vigorous or incisive in expression or style:the White Paper makes trenchant criticisms of health authorities
  • 2 archaic or literary (of a weapon or tool) having a sharp edge:a trenchant blade







Middle English (in sense 2): from Old French, literally 'cutting', present participle of trenchier (see trench)


in • ci • sive
1 〈言葉・批評が〉刺すような, 痛烈な, しんらつな;〈知力などが〉鋭い, 明敏な
an incisive remark
2 〈刃などが〉鋭利な;〈声が〉よく通る, 甲高い.
3 切歯[門歯]の.

Definition of crisp

  • 1(of a substance) firm, dry, and brittle:crisp bacon the snow is lovely and crisp
  • (of a fruit or vegetable) firm and juicy:a crisp lettuce
  • (of paper or cloth) stiff and uncreased:£65 in crisp new notes
  • (of hair) having tight curls.
  • 2(of the weather) cool, fresh, and invigorating:a crisp autumn day
  • 3(of a way of speaking) briskly decisive and matter-of-fact, without hesitation or unnecessary detail:her answer was crisp


  • 1 (also potato crisp) British a wafer-thin slice of potato fried or baked until crisp and eaten as a snack: cut down on fatty snacks such as crisps
  • 2a dessert of fruit baked with a crunchy topping of brown sugar, butter, and flour:rhubarb crisp


[with object]
  • 1give (food) a crisp surface by placing it in an oven or under a grill:crisp the pitta in the oven
  • [no object] (of food) develop a crisp surface in an oven or under a grill: open the foil so that the bread browns and crisps
  • 2 archaic curl (something) into short, stiff, wavy folds or crinkles: there is a cooling breeze which crisps the broad clear river


burn something to a crisp

burn something completely, leaving only a charred remnant: it is better to cook it slowly than to burn it to a crisp







Old English (referring to hair in the sense 'curly'): from Latin crispus 'curled'. Other senses may result from symbolic interpretation of the sound of the word



crunch +‎ -y


  1. likely to crunch, especially with reference to food when it is eaten
  2. (slang) having sensibilities of a counter-culture nature lover or hippie; derived from the concept of crunchy granola.
    San Franciso is a very crunchy town.


From earlier craunchcranch, of imitative origin.



crunch (third-person singular simple present crunchespresent participle crunchingsimple past and past participle crunched)
  1. To crush something, especially food, with a noisy crackling sound.  [quotations ▼]
    When I came home, Susan was watching TV with her feet up on the couch, crunching a piece of celery.
  2. To be crushed with a noisy crackling sound.
    Beetles crunched beneath the men's heavy boots as they worked.
  3. (slang) To calculate or otherwise process (e.g. to crunch numbers: to perform mathematical calculations).
    That metadata makes it much easier for the search engine to crunch the data for queries.
  4. To grind or press with violence and noise.  [quotations ▼]
  5. To emit a grinding or crunching noise.  [quotations ▼]
  6. (computing, transitive) To compress (data) using a particular algorithm, so that it can be restored by decrunching [quotations ▼]