2016年9月17日 星期六

labyrinth. Minotaur, read, rediscover, ascertain, in effect/put into effect, Braille

'The Riddle of the Labyrinth'
Reviewed by DONOVAN HOHN
Ascertaining the meaning of the ancient script Linear B becomes a detective story.

"I was a little frustrated" by the process, said Lewis S. Alexander, a former counselor to the Treasury secretary, who helped lead the search. "This is a harder job to fill than I would have thought."

Establishing the Office of Financial Research has become another example of the struggle to put the Dodd-Frank regulatory overhaul into effect.

in effect
1. For all practical purposes, as in This testimony in effect contradicted her earlier statement. [Late 1500s]
2. In or into operation, as in This law will be in effect in January. Related phrases include go into effect and take effect, which mean "become operative," as in This law goes into effect January 1, or It takes effect January 1. Similarly, put into effect means "make operative," as in When will the judge's ruling be put into effect? [Late 1700s] Also see in force, def. 2.
Read Taiwan, Rediscover Yourself

v., read (rĕd), read·ing, reads. v.tr.
  1. To examine and grasp the meaning of (written or printed characters, words, or sentences).
  2. To utter or render aloud (written or printed material): read poems to the students.
  3. To have the ability to examine and grasp the meaning of (written or printed material in a given language or notation): reads Chinese; reads music.
    1. To examine and grasp the meaning of (language in a form other than written or printed characters, words, or sentences): reading Braille; reading sign language.
    2. To examine and grasp the meaning of (a graphic representation): reading a map.
    1. To discern and interpret the nature or significance of through close examination or sensitive observation: The tracker read the trail for signs of game.
    2. To discern or anticipate through examination or observation; descry: "I can read abandonment in a broken door or shattered window" (William H. Gass).
  4. To determine the intent or mood of: can read your mind like a book; a hard person to read.
    1. To attribute a certain interpretation or meaning to: read her words differently than I did.
    2. To consider (something written or printed) as having a particular meaning or significance: read the novel as a parable.
  5. To foretell or predict (the future).
  6. To receive or comprehend (a radio message, for example): I read you loud and clear.
  7. To study or make a study of: read history as an undergraduate.
  8. To learn or get knowledge of from something written or printed: read that interest rates would continue to rise.
  9. To proofread.
  10. To have or use as a preferred reading in a particular passage: For change read charge.
  11. To indicate, register, or show: The dial reads 32°.
  12. Computer Science. To obtain (data) from a storage medium, such as a magnetic disk.
  13. Genetics. To decode or translate a sequence of messenger RNA into an amino acid sequence in a polypeptide chain.
  1. To examine and grasp the meaning of printed or written characters, as of words or music.
  2. To speak aloud the words that one is reading: read to the children every night.
  3. To learn by reading: read about the storm in the paper today.
  4. To study.
  5. To have a particular wording: Recite the poem exactly as it reads.
  6. To contain a specific meaning: As the law reads, the defendant is guilty.
  7. To indicate, register, or show a measurement or figure: How does your new watch read?
  8. To have a specified character or quality for the reader: Your poems read well.
n. Informal
Something that is read: "The book is a page-turner as well as a very satisfying read" (Frank Conroy).

adj. (
Informed by reading; learned: only sparsely read in fields outside my profession.
phrasal verbs:
read out
  1. To read aloud: Please read out the names on the list.
read up
  1. To study or learn by reading: Read up on the places you plan to visit before you travel.
read a lecture (or lesson)
  1. To issue a reprimand: My parents read me a lecture because I had neglected my chores.
read between the lines
  1. To perceive or detect an obscure or unexpressed meaning: learned to read between the lines of corporate annual reports to discern areas of fiscal weakness.
read out of
  1. To expel by proclamation from a social, political, or other group: was read out of the secretariat after the embarrassing incident.
[Middle English reden, from Old English rǣdan, to advise.]
WORD HISTORY English is the one of the few western European languages that does not derive its verb for "to read" from Latin legere. Compare, for example, leggere in Italian, lire in French, and lesen in German. (Equally surprising is the fact that English is the only western European language not to derive its verb for "to write" from Latin scrībere.) Read comes from the Old English verb rǣdan, "to advise, interpret (something difficult), interpret (something written), read." Rǣdan is related to the German verb raten, "to advise" (as in Rathaus, "townhall"). The Old English noun rǣd, "counsel," survives in the rare noun rede, "counsel, advice" and in the name of the unfortunate King Ethelred the Unready, whose epithet is often misunderstood. Unready here does not have its current sense "unprepared"; it is a late 16th-century spelling of an earlier unredy, "ill advised, rash, foolish," from rede.

dis·cov·er (dĭ-skŭv'ər)
tr.v., -ered, -er·ing, -ers.
  1. To notice or learn, especially by making an effort: got home and discovered that the furnace wasn't working.
    1. To be the first, or the first of one's group or kind, to find, learn of, or observe.
    2. To learn about for the first time in one's experience: discovered a new restaurant on the west side.
  2. To learn something about: discovered him to be an impostor; discovered the brake to be defective.
  3. To identify (a person) as a potentially prominent performer: a movie star who was discovered in a drugstore by a producer.
  4. Archaic. To reveal or expose.
[Middle English discoveren, to reveal, from Old French descovrir, from Late Latin discooperīre : Latin dis-, dis- + Latin cooperīre, to cover; see cover.]
discoverable dis·cov'er·a·ble adj.discoverer dis·cov'er·er n.
SYNONYMS discover, ascertain, determine, learn. These verbs mean to gain knowledge or awareness of something not known before: discovered a star in a distant galaxy; ascertaining the facts; tried to determine the origins of the problem; learned the sad news from the radio.


Syllabification: (Braille)
Pronunciation: /brāl/
  • a form of written language for blind people, in which characters are represented by patterns of raised dots that are felt with the fingertips.


[with object]
  • print or transcribe in Braille.
Braille should be spelled with -ille at the end: the system is named after the French educationalist Louis Braille.

Pronunciation: /ˌasəˈteɪn/

Definition of ascertain
[with object]
  • find (something) out for certain; make sure of:an attempt to ascertain the cause of the accident [with clause]:management should ascertain whether adequate funding can be provided





late Middle English (in the sense 'assure, convince'): from Old French acertener, based on Latin certus 'settled, sure'


lab • y • rinth
labyrinths (複数形)
1 迷宮;迷路;迷路園;曲がりくねった街路. ⇒MAZE 1
2 混迷した事情[事件].
3 ((the L-))《ギリシャ神話》ラビュリントス:Minos王が怪物Minotaurを監禁するために造らせた大迷宮.
4 《解剖学》内耳迷路;篩(し)骨迷路.
Pronunciation: /ˈlab(ə)rɪnθ/
Definition of labyrinth

  • 1a complicated irregular network of passages or paths in which it is difficult to find one’s way; a maze:you lose yourself in a labyrinth of little streets
  • an intricate and confusing arrangement:a labyrinth of conflicting laws and regulations
  • 2 Anatomy a complex structure in the inner ear which contains the organs of hearing and balance. It consists of bony cavities (the bony labyrinth) filled with fluid and lined with sensitive membranes (the membranous labyrinth).
  • Zoology an accessory respiratory organ of certain fish.

Pronunciation: /-ˈrɪnθɪən/


late Middle English (referring to the maze constructed by Daedalus to house the Minotaur): from French labyrinthe or Latin labyrinthus, from Greek laburinthos