2016年1月21日 星期四

petition, candidate, plea, plead, vindication, request

[Petition: Recognise TAIWAN as a Country]
Due to the One China policy the United Kingdom doesn't recognise the Government of the Republic of China and all diplomatic relations between the two countries take place on an unofficial basis.

James J. Rooney has been identified as the candidate for ASQ president-elect for the 2010-2011 membership year by the board of directors.
Rooney will become the 62nd president of ASQ following this year's elections, assuming another candidate doesn't enter the election through petition.

Strauss-Kahn Drama Ends With Short Final Scene

A judge’s dismissal of the sexual assault case against Dominique Strauss-Kahn brought some measure of legal vindication to him after his stunning arrest.

John Edwards Pleads Not Guilty

"I never ever thought I was breaking the law."

Madoff Employee to Plead Guilty
Eric S. Lipkin, a second-generation employee of Bernard Madoff, is expected to plead guilty to criminal charges next week and cooperate with prosecutors trying to pursue cases against other individuals.

Thirty-five-year-old Armatys, of Palatine, Illinois, pleaded guilty on Monday in New Jersey Superior Court to one count of theft as part of a plea bargain.


Pronunciation: /rɪˈkwɛst/
Translate request | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish


  • an act of asking politely or formally for something:a request for information the club’s excursion was postponed at the request of some of the members
  • a thing that is asked for:to have our ideas taken seriously is surely a reasonable request
  • an instruction to a computer to provide information or perform another function: the computer is busy servicing requests from other processes
  • a tune or song played on a radio programme, typically accompanied by a personal message, in response to a listener’s request.
  • [mass noun] archaic the state of being sought after:human intelligence, which is in constant request in a family


[with object]
  • politely or formally ask for:he received the information he had requested [with clause]:the chairman requested that the reports be considered
  • [with infinitive] politely or formally ask (someone) to do something:the letter requested him to report to London


by (or on) request

in response to an expressed wish: application forms are available on request





Middle English: from Old French requeste (noun), based on Latin requirere (see require)

  1. An earnest request; an appeal: spoke out in a plea for greater tolerance.
  2. An excuse; a pretext: "necessity,/The Tyrant's plea" (John Milton).
  3. Law.
    1. An allegation offered in pleading a case.
    2. A defendant's answer to the declaration made by the plaintiff in a civil action.
    3. The answer of the accused to a criminal charge or indictment: entered a plea of not guilty.
    4. A special answer depending on or demonstrating one or more reasons why a suit should be delayed, dismissed, or barred in equity law.
    5. An action or suit.
[Middle English plai, lawsuit, from Old French plai, plaid, from Late Latin placitum, decree, from Latin, from neuter past participle of placēre, to please.]

  • [vìndəkéiʃən]
1 (非難・汚名・嫌疑・疑惑を晴らす)申し開き;(物事が正当であるとする)立証, 証明, (名誉・要求の)擁護, 支持;(権利の)主張.
2 (…についての)弁明((of, for ...))
in vindication of ...
3 立証[支持, 弁明]するもの.plead (plēd) pronunciation
v., plead·ed, or pled (plĕd), plead·ing, pleads.
  1. To appeal earnestly; beg: plead for more time.
  2. To offer reasons for or against something; argue earnestly: plead against a bill.
  3. To provide an argument or appeal: Your youth pleads for you in this instance.
  4. Law.
    1. To put forward a plea of a specific nature in court: plead guilty.
    2. To make or answer an allegation in a legal proceeding.
    3. To address a court as a lawyer or advocate.
  1. To assert as defense, vindication, or excuse; claim as a plea: plead illness.
  2. Law.
    1. To present as an answer to a charge, indictment, or declaration made against one.
    2. To argue or present (a case) in a court or similar tribunal.
[Middle English pleden, plaiden, from Old French plaidier, from Medieval Latin placitāre, to appeal to the law, from Late Latin placitum, decree, opinion. See plea.]
pleadable plead'a·ble adj.
pleader plead'er n.
pleadingly plead'ing·ly adv.
USAGE NOTE In strict legal usage, one is said to plead guilty or plead not guilty but not to plead innocent. In nonlegal contexts, however, plead innocent is well established.

  • [plíːd]
[動](〜・ed or plead 〔pléd〕 or((米・スコット))pled 〔pléd〕)(自)
1I([副]) ](…を)嘆願[懇願]する((for ...));[plead with A for B]〈A(人)にB(慈悲など)を〉嘆願する;[plead with A to do]〈A(人)に…してくれと〉弁じる, 説きつける, 熱心に頼む, 訴える. ⇒APPEAL[類語]
He pleaded with the judge for mercy.
He pleaded with her not to leave him.
2 《法律》
(1)I([副])/II[形]](訴訟で)(…に対し)申し立て[主張]をする((against ...));(…を)弁護する((for ...)).
(2) 〈被告側が〉答弁[抗弁]する, 答弁書を提出する
plead guilty
plead not guilty
無罪の答弁をする(▼くだけた言い方ではplead innocent [one's innocence]ともいう).
(3) (法廷で)弁論する.
1III[名]/that節]…を(弁護・言い訳として)主張する, 申し立てる;…と申し立てて弁護[抗弁]する
plead ignorance
He pleaded that he did not break the window.
2 《法律》
(1) 〈訴訟原因などを〉申し立てる.
(2) …を訴答として提出する.
[古フランス語←ラテン語placitāre (placēre喜ばす+-tus過去分詞語尾+-āre=喜ぶようにする→意見を述べる→嘆願する). △PLEA
plead・a・ble [形]


(kăn'dĭ-dāt', -dĭt) pronunciation
  1. A person who seeks or is nominated for an office, prize, or honor.
  2. A student who has nearly completed the requirements for a degree.
  3. One that seems likely to gain a certain position or come to a certain fate: young actors who are candidates for stardom; a memorandum that is a good candidate for the trash can.
[Latin candidātus, clothed in white (from the white togas worn by Romans seeking office), candidate, from candidus, white. See candid.] 胡氏還追溯到梵文"光輝...."
candidacy can'di·da·cy (-də-sē) or can'di·da·ture' (-də-chʊr', -chər) n.

pe·ti·tion (pə-tĭsh'ən) pronunciation

  1. A solemn supplication or request to a superior authority; an entreaty.
  2. A formal written document requesting a right or benefit from a person or group in authority.
  3. Law.
    1. A formal written application requesting a court for a specific judicial action: a petition for appeal.
    2. The judicial action asked for in any such request.
  4. Something requested or entreated.

v., -tioned, -tion·ing, -tions. v.tr.
  1. To address a petition to.
  2. To ask for by petition; request formally.
To make a request, especially formally: petitioned for retrial.

[Middle English peticion, from Old French petition, from Latin petītiō, petītiōn-, from petītus, past participle of petere, to request.]
petitionary pe·ti'tion·ar'y (pə-tĭsh'ə-nĕr'ē) adj.
petitioner pe·ti'tion·er n.

━━ n. 嘆願, 陳情; 哀願; 祈願; 嘆願[申請]書; 【法】申立て(書).
━━ v. 請願[申請]する ((for, to; to do)); 祈願する.
〔-èri〕 ━━ a.