2016年1月14日 星期四

gentry, re-gentrification, commuter, ranks, knight, go by, irrevocably, run-down

Even 100 years ago, gentrification (or whatever it was called back then) was a subject of satire – and cartoonists have been sticking the knife in with relish every since. As part of our Guardian Citiescolleagues' gentrification special, here are 10 of the best

Even 100 years ago, gentrification (or whatever it was called back then)…
THEGUARDIAN.COM



Apple Lead Designer Knighted
Apple Senior Vice President Jonathan Ive has received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II for his work in leading the design of some of the company's most innovative products.

SAN FRANCISCO—Apple Inc. Senior Vice President Jonathan Ive has received a knighthood for his work in leading the design of some of the company's most innovative products, British officials here said late Friday.
Queen Elizabeth II named the London-born Ive, who goes by Jony, a Knight Commander of the ...



17 killed in LA train crash


The death toll in the head-on crash of a commuter train and a freight train near Los Angeles has risen to 17. Rescue workers are continuing to search the wreckage in the hope of finding further survivors. Over 130 people were also injured when the train, carrying more than 200 passengers, smashed into a freight train which was on the same track heading in the opposite direction. It is not known why the two trains collided. Investigators are still searching for the trains' event recorders.

IPad Alters Landscape for App Makers
Apple's iPad has the potential to be both a blessing and a curse to the growing ranks of companies that have developed more than 140,000 iPhone applications.



Before they restored the place, the couple described it as a rundown “hippie dwelling.” Now the hall’s grand staircase leads up to nine bedrooms, and the three elegant living areas look out on the newly landscaped garden terrace and views over the River Fowey.




The Supreme Court ruling that it's unconstitutional to execute someone for raping a child. The 5-4 decision restricted the death penalty to punish murderers and those who commit crimes against the state. Writing for the majority, Justice Anthony Kennedy said that cases of child rape "may be devastating in their harm" but "they cannot be compared to murder in their severity and irrevocability."



City Dwellers Protest Against Luxury Boom

Spicing up old rundown neighbourhoods is becoming quite the in vogue thing to do right now in Berlin. But not everyone’s a fan of this new wave of gentrification.

The DW-WORLD Article
http://newsletter.dw-world.de/re?l=evyun9I44va89pI4

A Rising Tide of Gentrification Rocks Dutch Houseboats



Berlin cultural centers become casualties of gentrification

Berlin's edgy artist communities are being squeezed out by shiny new
hotels, trendy bars and designer stores. It's a phenomenon common to big cities - but should Berlin do something to stop gentrification?




Before 1948 and the establishment of the state of Israel, Jaffa was the cultural capital of Palestine. It boasted numerous publishing houses, newspapers, a radio station, sports teams and cultural clubs.

During the 1948 Israeli war of independence, which the Palestinians call the Nakba, ninety thousand Arabs left or fled the city, leaving just a few thousand.Ismail Abou-Shehade

Jaffa was then incorporated into Tel Aviv and was neglected for decades. Now the Tel Aviv municipality is spending millions on renovating the city, improving its infrastructure and restoring its architectural masterpieces.

But the re-gentrification has a social cost, for as Jaffa becomes more attractive, house prices are soaring.


Berlin Residents Unsettled by Wave of Gentrification

Since the Berlin Wall fell, the gentrification of some eastern neighborhoods has been ongoing. But as high-end development spreads, some are saying: enough. They fear Berlin's character could be irrevocably changed.

The DW-WORLD Article
http://newsletter.dw-world.de/re?l=evyqo6I44va89pI3

gentrify (1972 新字 )

flower power(1967)

Irrevocable
Incapable of being recalled or revoked, unchangeable. For example, a bank issues an irrevocable Letter of Credit, stating that if the terms of the Contract are met, the bank will lend the money requested.
irrevocable
impossible to change:
an irrevocable decision

irrevocably adverb
Closing the factory would irrevocably alter the character of the local community for the worse.




gentrify Show phonetics
verb [T often passive] DISAPPROVING
to change a place from being a poor area to a richer one, by people of a higher social class moving to live there:
The area where I grew up has been all modernized and gentrified, and has lost all its old character.

gentrification Show phonetics
noun [U]
when an area is gentrified




gen・tri・fy



━━ vt. (地域などを)再開発して高級化する.
 gen・tri・fi・ca・tion
 ━━ n. (地域の)高級化.



run-down (CONDITION) Show phonetics
adjective
1 describes buildings or areas that are in very bad condition:
a run-down building/cemetery

2 [after verb] tired and not healthy, especially because of working too much:
My doctor said I was looking run-down and ought to take some time to rest.
See also run-down.


rank
n.
    1. A relative position in a society.
    2. An official position or grade: the rank of sergeant.
    3. A relative position or degree of value in a graded group.
    4. High or eminent station or position: persons of rank.
  1. A row, line, series, or range.
    1. A line of soldiers, vehicles, or equipment standing side by side in close order.
    2. ranks The armed forces.
    3. ranks Personnel, especially enlisted military personnel.
  2. ranks A body of people classed together; numbers: joined the ranks of the unemployed.
  3. Games. Any of the rows of squares running crosswise to the files on a playing board in chess or checkers.

the gentry Show phonetics
plural noun
people of high social class, especially in the past:
a member of the landed gentry (= those who own a lot of land)

gen・try



--> ━━ n. (the ~) ((複数扱い)) (英国では貴族に次ぐ)上流階級(の人々); 【英史】準貴族階級; 〔軽蔑〕 連中 (these ~).


n., pl. -tries.
  1. People of gentle birth, good breeding, or high social position.
    1. An upper or ruling class.
    2. The class of English landowners ranking just below the nobility.
  2. People of a particular class or group: another commuter from the suburban gentry.
[Middle English gentri, nobility of birth, from Old French genterie, variant of genterise, gentilise, from gentil, noble. See gentle.]

這字眼,對於了解英國社會情況 (譬如說 了解 Jane Austen的小說中的社會背景 )似乎頗重要。多屬此階段之下(下 有人發明 psudo-gentry 說法 ,不過用作者在《理性與感性》''Sense and Sensibility''說法,  也許叫"沒落無名的鄉紳"層)
所以至少要參考:. A Dictionary of British History. Copyright © 2001, 2004 by Oxford University Press.

gentry
Technically the gentry consists of four separately defined groups, socially inferior only to the ranks of the peerage. The senior rank is that of baronet, a position founded in 1611 by James I giving the possessor the hereditary right to be addressed as Sir. The second rank is that of knight, originally a military honour, but increasingly employed in a secular manner as a reward for service to the crown. The third term ‘esquire’ originally had connotations with the battlefield. In the 14th cent. it was an honour which could be conferred by the crown, and by the 16th cent. it had a specific Office of Arms definition. Heraldic visitations, which began in 1530, were designed to oblige anyone claiming gentry status to prove their right. Increasingly through the 16th and 17th cents. the heralds found it difficult to enforce their authority, and numbers proliferated, both of esquires and particularly of the fourth gentry rank, that of gentleman. ‘Gentleman’ emerged as a separate title in connection with the statute of Additions of 1413 and, like esquire, was originally closely defined.

The concept of the gentlemanly way of life was current in the 16th cent., and became increasingly important by the 19th cent. A gentleman was a man who held a social position implying a style of living, usually without manual labour, and with connotations for the defence of honour.

In terms of wealth, contemporary social commentators such as King and Joseph Massie placed the gentry immediately below the peerage, while Daniel Defoe argued that £100 a year was the minimum income required for a man to be a gentleman. Certainly this was the qualification figure required for JPs and land tax commissioners. But since there were no automatic channels of admission to the peerage, some very wealthy men remained socially as gentry simply because they had no title. This anomaly is clearest by 1883 when John Bateman's survey of landownership revealed that 186 out of 331 landowners with 10, 000 acres or more were gentry in this sense.

Informed estimates suggest that the gentry owned about 50 per cent of the landed wealth of the United Kingdom from the 17th cent. onwards. This position was maintained by the queue of businessmen, merchants, bankers, and industrialists to invest part of their fortune in landed estate. The link with landownership has to be treated with care since contemporaries were by no means clear in their understanding. Increasingly a man was a gentleman depending on his style of life, and without reference to his ownership of landed acres. This has given rise among historians to the concept of urban gentry, people who lived in towns, enjoying a reasonable income but lacking the landed acreage or the mansion associated with the country gentry. Many of these were members of professions—lawyers, doctors, andclergy—rising in status and in numbers during the 18th cent. As a result, the gentry as a social group has traditionally lacked cohesion.


再讀Wikipedia article "Gentry".

com・mut・er




━━ n. 通勤[通学]者.
commuter belt 通勤(可能)帯.
commuter tax (通勤地の市や州が課する)通勤税.
commute


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