2017年3月15日 星期三

insuperable, howitzer, perch, positional, countryside, seaside, beachside, entourage

Everything was bound to get harder when painting found other tasks than mimesis. Picasso said that painters no longer live in a tradition but need to ‘re-create an entire language ... from A to Z’. This development could, he admitted, be called a liberation, ‘but what the artist gains in the way of liberty he loses in the way of order.’ The writer about painting is in an even greater difficulty than the painter himself, for he must learn the elements of that new language yet seek for himself a matching other, which has to consist of words. The problem of translation now looks insuperable.

China's citizens are moving from the countryside into cities in record numbers, boosting the economy but making party leaders uneasy.

A farmer worked her land in the shadows of a lead factory in Hengyang, Hunan province, where scholars say soil pollution is especially acute.
Sim Chi Yin for The New York Times

Soil Pollution Plagues Chinese Countryside

Anxiety is growing in China about contaminated soil in the country’s agricultural centers and the potential effects on the food chain.

Then Harry Bennett showed up with his entourage. Bennett, one of Henry Ford’s right-hand men, led the notorious Ford Service Department, a private police force composed of ex-convicts, ex-athletes, ex-cops and gang members.

One in three children is growing up in a slum, UNICEF says. Ever more families are moving into the world's cities, where life is often worse there than in the countryside, according to the UN children's agency.

Perched above 10,000 feet in the icy reaches of the eastern Himalayas, the town of Tawang is not only home to one of Tibetan Buddhism’s most sacred monasteries, but also the site of a massive Indian military buildup. Convoys of army trucks haul howitzers along rutted mountain roads. Soldiers drill in muddy fields. Military bases appear every half-mile in the countryside, with watchtowers rising behind concertina wire.

China's Communist Elders Take Backroom Intrigue Beachside
New York Times
BEIDAIHE, China — Clutching a wooden cane and aided by an entourage of young people, the old man in a black silk shirt and matching shorts hobbled up the stairs to Kiessling, a decades-old Austrian restaurant not far from the teeming beaches of this .

positional (goods)

positional goods 可提升社會地位的財貨(或服務?)
Term coined by F. Hirsch in Social Limits to Growth (1977) to denote goods which are valued for their scarcity alone: examples given include unspoilt countryside and high educational qualifications. Hirsch argued that competition for these goods was necessarily zero-sum. Thus he distanced himself both from doomsters whose then-influential The Limits to Growth (ed. D. Meadows et al. for the Club of Rome, 1972) had argued that mankind was about to run out of natural resources and from conventional economists who saw no insuperable limits to growth through increasing material abundance. Critics of Hirsch have argued that the concept of positional goods disappears under close examination, but it has remained influential.

  1. (of a difficulty or obstacle) impossible to overcome.
    "insuperable financial problems"


Pronunciation: /ˈkʌntrɪsʌɪd/ 


1The land and scenery of a rural area:they explored the surrounding countryside[AS MODIFIER]: countryside conservation groups
1.1The inhabitants of countryside areas:the political influence of the countryside remains strong



Relating to or determined by position:United will be forced to make several positional changes
1 : of, relating to, or fixed by position 
2 : involving little movement 
3 : dependent on position or environment or context 

━━ n. 位置; 場所; 【スポーツ】守備位置; 【軍】陣地; 適所; 状況; 境遇, 立場 ((to do)); 優位; 地位, (高い)身分; 席次; 勤め口, 職; 姿勢; 態度, 見解 ((on)); 【論】命題.
 be in a position to do することができる.
 be in [out of] position 所を得ている[いない].
━━ vt. (適当な位置に)置く; (位置を)定める.
 po・si・tion・al ━━ a. 位置の; 地位の; 【スポーツ】守備上の.
positional notation 【コンピュータ】位取り表記法.
 position analysis questionnaire 【経営】職務分析質問表調査 ((略 PAQ)).
 po・si・tion・ing 【商業】ポジショニング ((競合製品との差異を打ち出して市場内で特別の位置を占めること)).
 position paper (組織体が出す)方針[政策]声明書.



  • a group of people attending or surrounding an important person:an entourage of loyal courtiers


mid 19th century: French, from entourer 'to surround'

(bēch'sīd') pronunciation
Situated on or along a beach.

  • レベル:大学入試程度
  • (kŭn'trē-sīd') pronunciation
  • A rural region.
  • The inhabitants of a rural region.

[名]((the 〜))
1 [U]地方, いなか, 田園地方.
2 ((集合的に単数扱い))地方の住民.


  • レベル:社会人必須
[名]((通例the 〜))海辺, 浜辺, 海岸. ⇒COAST[名]1
go to the seaside
((主に英))(海水浴・避暑などで)海辺へ行く(▼((米))go to the beach).
━━[形]((限定))海辺の, 臨海の
a seaside resort

In Japan, an Odd Perch for Google: Looking Up at the Leader

  1. A rod or branch serving as a roost for a bird.
    1. An elevated place for resting or sitting.
    2. A position that is secure, advantageous, or prominent.
  2. A pole, stick, or rod.
  3. Chiefly British.
    1. A linear measure equal to 5.50 yards or 16.5 feet (5.03 meters); a rod.
    2. One square rod of land.
  4. A unit of cubic measure used in stonework, usually 16.5 feet by 1.0 foot by 1.5 feet, or 24.75 cubic feet (0.70 cubic meter).
  5. A frame on which cloth is laid for examination of quality.

v., perched, perch·ing, perch·es. v.intr.
  1. To alight or rest on a perch; roost: A raven perched high in the pine.
  2. To stand, sit, or rest on an elevated place or position.
  1. To place on or as if on a perch: The child perched the glass on the edge of the counter.
  2. To lay (cloth) on a perch in order to examine it.
[Middle English perche, from Old French, from Latin pertica, stick, pole.]

howitzer ━━ n. 【軍】榴(りゅう)弾砲.


Pronunciation: /ˈhaʊɪtsə/

Definition of howitzer


  • a short gun for firing shells on high trajectories at low velocities.


late 17th century: from Dutch houwitser, from German Haubitze, from Czech houfnice 'catapult'


  • 発音記号[-sáidid]
a many--sided figure