2016年1月20日 星期三

volunteer, municipality, scuba gear

Rules for the web in China: avoid browsing late at night, do order curtains for your office, and when shopping, opt for the scuba gear over camera equipment.
Why? It all has to do with your credit rating.

Companies are using online activity to determine credit ratings adding to…

AIG Faces Growing Wrath Over Payouts
Roughly two-thirds of the $173.3 billion in federal aid received by AIG has been paid out to trading partners such as banks and municipalities.

Scuba diving - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a scuba diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.


  1. A person who performs or offers to perform a service voluntarily: an information booth staffed by volunteers; hospital volunteers.
  2. Law.
    1. A person who renders aid, performs a service, or assumes an obligation voluntarily.
    2. A person who holds property under a deed made without consideration.
  3. Botany. A cultivated plant growing from self-sown or accidentally dropped seed.
  1. Being, consisting of, or done by volunteers: volunteer firefighters; volunteer tutoring.
  2. Botany. Growing from self-sown or accidentally dropped seed. Used of a cultivated plant or crop.

v., -teered, -teer·ing, -teers. v.tr.To give or offer to give voluntarily: volunteered their services; volunteer to give blood.
  1. To perform or offer to perform a service of one's own free will.
  2. To do charitable or helpful work without pay: Many retirees volunteer in community service and day care centers.
[Obsolete French voluntaire, from Old French, voluntary, from Latin voluntārius. See voluntary.]

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Copyright © 2007, 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company


--> ━━ n. 志願者[兵], ボランティア.
━━ a. 有志の; 志願兵の; 自発的な.
━━ vt. 自発的にする[申し出る]; 志願する.
━━ vi. 進んでことに当る ((for)); 志願兵になる.

とくし-か 0 【篤志家】


ていしん 0挺身】


n. - 志願者, 志願兵
v. tr. - 自願..., 自願提供
v. intr. - 自願, 自願服務, 自生自長
adj. - 志願的, 無償的, 義務的
日本語 (Japanese)
n. - 志願者, 奉仕者, ボランティア, 志願兵
v. - 自発的に申し出る, 進んで提供する, 志願する
Wikipedia article "Volunteer".
A volunteer is someone who serves in a community or for the benefit of natural environment primarily because they choose to do so. Many serve through a non-profit organization – sometimes referred to as formal volunteering, but a significant number also serve less formally, either individually or as part of a group. Because these informal volunteers are much harder to identify, they may not be included in research and statistics on volunteering.[citation needed]
By definition, a volunteer worker does not get paid or receive compensation for services rendered.

volunteer Show phonetics
noun [C]
a person who does something, especially helping other people, willingly and without being forced or paid to do it:
The Health clinic is relying on volunteers to run the office and answer the telephones.
Since it would be a highly dangerous mission, the Lieutenant asked for volunteers.
It's a volunteer army with no paid professionals.
Compare conscript.

volunteer Show phonetics
1 [I or T] to offer to do something that you do not have to do, often without having been asked to do it and/or without expecting payment:
[+ to infinitive] During the emergency many staff volunteered to work through the weekend.
I volunteered myself for the post of Health and Safety Representative.
My mates volunteered me to do the talking.
He volunteered for the army (= He became a member although he was not forced to by law).

2 [T] to give information without being asked:
If I were you, I wouldn't volunteer any details of what happened.
[+ speech] "I saw her going out of the main entrance at about half past two, " he volunteered.

Non-Fiction Usage: Volunteer



ALT testing of volunteer blood donors should be discontinued. (references)

She didn't want to volunteer at the hospital or go to her church group. (references)

You will only be asked to take part in a clinical trial as a volunteer giving informed consent. (references)


A Commercial Officer from the U.S. Embassy sits on the volunteer executive board. (references)



In 2000 the school obtained the services of a volunteer expert who provided professional training for the staff. (references)

Economic History


Women may volunteer to serve in the armed forces and presently total about 2,000; however, they are not assigned to functions involving the use of weapons for purposes other than self defense. (references)


The "zemessardze," or home guard, is an autonomous 16,500 man-strong volunteer paramilitary organization which also performs traditional national guard duties and assists the 2,500 border guards. (references)

Human Rights

Cote d'Ivoire

In April 1999, the bar began operating a telephone hotline for free legal advice from volunteer attorneys. (references)


In March 2000, the FARC announced "Law 002," which required persons with more than $1 million in assets to volunteer payment to the FARC or risk detention. (references)


Violent crime continued to fuel the growth of private--often unlicensed--guard services, and of volunteer groups that patrolled their neighborhoods or municipalities to deter crime. (references)



The Government supports volunteer groups that oppose racism and xenophobia. (references)

Political Economy


A volunteer force of armed civilian local defense units with limited arrest powers also functions throughout the country. (references)

Sri Lanka

The 120,000-member army (which includes the Army Volunteer Force), the 17,000-member navy, and the 18,500 member air force bear principal responsibility for conducting operations against LTTE terrorists. (references)



Volunteer useful information such as allergies, medication currently taken, and medical history. (references)


Israel and the occupied territories

While they cannot be "placed" in combat positions, they are free to volunteer for such units. (references)


The center offers legal and medical referrals from volunteer doctors and lawyers, counseling from trained psychologists, and a hotline for women in distress. (references)

Worker Rights


Workers who refused to volunteer for these jobs often risked discrimination or job loss. (references)


However, over the past year, 42 additional, volunteer inspectors from NGO's assisted the labor monitoring unit. (references)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In the RS overtime is limited to 10 hours, although an employees may volunteer for an additional 10 hours in exceptional circumstances. (references)
Source: compiled by the editor from ICON Group International, Inc.; see credits.



municipal PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
of or belonging to a town or city:
municipal authorities
municipal tennis courts
municipal elections

municipality PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Phonetic PhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhoneticPhonetic Hide phonetics
noun [C]
a city or town with its own local government, or this local government itself:
The municipality provides services such as electricity, water and rubbish collection.

Show phonetics
1 done, made or given willingly, without being forced or paid to do it:
They chose to take voluntary redundancy.
She does voluntary work for the Red Cross two days a week.

2 describes an organization that is controlled and supported by people who give their time and money to it without being paid, and that exists to help other people:
The hospital has asked various voluntary organizations to help raise money for the new operating theatre.
(from Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary)


(vŏl'ən-tĕr'ē) pronunciation

  1. Done or undertaken of one's own free will: a voluntary decision to leave the job.
  2. Acting or done willingly and without constraint or expectation of reward: a voluntary hostage; voluntary community work.
  3. Normally controlled by or subject to individual volition: voluntary muscle contractions.
  4. Capable of making choices; having the faculty of will.
  5. Supported by contributions or charitable donations rather than by government appropriations: voluntary hospitals.
  6. Law.
    1. Without legal obligation or consideration: a voluntary conveyance of property.
    2. Done deliberately; intentional: voluntary manslaughter.
n., pl. -ies.
  1. Music.
    1. A short piece of music, often improvised on a solo instrument, played as an introduction to a larger work.
    2. A piece for solo organ, often improvised, played before, during, or after a religious service.
  2. A volunteer.
[Middle English, from Latin voluntārius, from voluntās, choice, from velle, vol-, to wish.]
voluntarily vol'un·tar'i·ly (-târ'ə-lē) adv.
voluntariness vol'un·tar'i·ness n.
SYNONYMS voluntary, intentional, deliberate, willful, willing.
These adjectives mean being or resulting from one's own free will.
Voluntary implies the operation of unforced choice: “Ignorance, when it is voluntary, is criminal” (Samuel Johnson).
Intentional applies to something undertaken to further a plan or realize an aim: “I will abstain from all intentional wrongdoing and harm” (Hippocratic Oath).
Deliberate stresses premeditation and full awareness of the character and consequences of one's acts: taking deliberate and decisive action.
Willful implies deliberate, headstrong persistence in a self-determined course of action: a willful waste of time.
Willing suggests ready or cheerful acquiescence in the proposals or requirements of another: “The first requisite of a good citizen … is that he shall be able and willing to pull his weight” (Theodore Roosevelt).