2017年7月17日 星期一

scale, off the scale, tartar and plaque, polished. Scale Mount Lear. psoriasis

Good quality clothes go into green sacks for sale in some 200 Red Cross shops across the country.
Diana Goss, from the British Red Cross says Grenfell, as a logistical challenge for aid agencies, is "really off the scale."

Glenda Jackson Hopes to Scale Mount Lear in Her Stage Return
New York Times‎ - 2 days ago
Celia Imrie and Glenda Jackson in a rehearsal of “King Lear” at the Old Vic. Credit Manuel ...


Could an injection cure Kim Kardashian West's psoriasis?
A new drug called ixekizumab.
DAILYM.AI


It helps flush away plaque.


Taiwan draws first blood in polished defeat of Canada 台北時報
Taiwan improved to 2-1 in the preliminaries of this year's 18U Baseball World Cup with a 4-2 win over Canada at the Taichung Intercontinental Baseball Stadium ...


off the scale
phrase of scale
  1. 1.
    of or to a degree or level that is far in excess of what is normal or notionally measurable.
    "meteorologists warned that conditions would be brutal, with soaring temperatures and humidity off the scale"

polished

Pronunciation: /ˈpɒlɪʃt/
adjective
  • shiny as a result of being rubbed:a polished mahogany table
  • accomplished and skilful:his polished performance in the film
  • refined, sophisticated, or elegant:he was polished and charming
  • (of rice) having had the outer husk removed during milling.


Mountnoun

 UK  /maʊnt/ US  /maʊnt/written abbreviation Mt


used as part of the name of a mountain:

Mount Everest
Mount Hood

scale

scale verb [ T ] (CLIMB)



to climb up a steep surface, such as a wallor the side of a mountain, often usingspecial equipment:

The prisoner scaled the high prison wall and ran off.


(CLEAN TEETH)
verb [T] SPECIALIZED
to remove tartar (歯石= hard white substance) and plaque (【歯科】歯垢, 歯苔= soft substance in which bacteria breed) from teeth:
The dentist scaled and polished my teeth last week.

plaque
n.
  1. A flat plate, slab, or disk that is ornamented or engraved for mounting, as on a wall for decoration or on a monument for information.
  2. A small pin or brooch worn as an ornament or a badge of membership.
    1. Pathology. A small disk-shaped formation or growth; a patch.
    2. A deposit of fatty material on the inner lining of an arterial wall, characteristic of atherosclerosis.
    3. A scaly patch formed on the skin by psoriasis.
    4. A film of mucus and bacteria on a tooth surface.
    5. A clear, often round patch of lysed cells in an otherwise opaque layer of a bacteria or cell culture.
[French, from Old French, metal plate, perhaps from Middle Dutch placke, disk, patch.]

Psoriasis on back.jpg
年輕人的上肢及背部明顯的乾癬症狀
乾癬英語:psoriasis英語發音:/sɵˈr.əsɨs/,又稱白疕)是一種長期疾病,主要特色是在身上出現一塊一塊異常的皮膚[1]。通常,這些塊狀皮膚異常會發紅、發癢、以及脫屑。乾癬的症狀輕自小片的病變、大至影響全身皮膚[2],皮膚的傷害可能會誘發傷口處發生乾癬病變,稱作寇柏納現象[3]。乾癬患者罹患乾癬性關節炎、淋巴癌心血管疾病克隆氏症以及憂鬱症的機會都較高[4]。約有30%的乾癬患者患有乾癬性關節炎[5]
乾癬可以分為五大型:斑塊狀、點滴狀皮褶性、膿皰狀與紅皮狀[1]。斑塊狀乾癬又被叫做尋常乾癬,約有90%的患者屬於這一類,患部通常是上面有白色皮屑的紅色班塊,最常出現在上臂、小腿前側、肚臍週圍以及頭皮[4];點滴狀乾癬的患部呈水滴狀[1];膿皰狀乾癬的患部則是非感染性的[5];皮褶狀乾癬的患部也是紅色斑塊,但發生在皮膚皺褶處[1];紅皮狀乾癬指的則是患部的範圍變得非常廣,它可能由任何種類的乾癬發展而來。多數患者的指甲與趾甲在乾癬的病程中會受到影響,症狀包括凹陷或顏色變化[4]
乾癬目前被認為是一種會被環境因素誘發的遺傳性疾病[2]同卵雙胞胎都發生乾癬的機會比異卵雙胞胎高3倍。通常,乾癬的症狀在冬季與使用特定藥物(如乙型交感神經接受體阻斷劑非類固醇消炎止痛藥)情形下會更嚴重[4]。感染與心理壓力也可能有影響[2][1]。乾癬不會感染,它背後的原因是免疫系統對皮膚細胞發動攻擊。乾癬的診斷主要依靠症狀與徵象[4]
目前乾癬尚無法完全治癒,但有許多治療手段能控制症狀[4],包括類固醇軟膏、膽鈣化醇軟膏、紫外線光照治療、以及氨甲蝶呤等免疫抑制劑[1]。有75%的乾癬患者的症狀可以單靠使用藥膏控制[4]。乾癬的盛行率約為2-4%[6],女性與男性患病的機會相等[1]

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