“Then we need narrow-spectrum antibiotics designed to knock out the pathogenic bacteria without disrupting the health-promoting ones,” Dr. Blaser added. “This will make it possible to treat serious infections with less collateral effect.”
By STEVEN ERLANGER
Five years after a financial crisis in the United States helped spread a deep global recession, much of the world again fears collateral damage.
The 2008 GOP nominee pushes back against Dems' tax-return talking point—but not without some collateral damage.
Lehman Examiner Sees Possible Grounds for Suit
The transaction transferred $2 billion in assets away from C.M.E. Group, which operates the Chicago and New York mercantile exchanges. The assets were collateral and clearing deposits held by C.M.E. and linked to Lehman's futures and options contracts -- proprietary trades that Goldman, Barclays, and another firm, DRW Trading, would take on along with the collateral transfer in question.
The transfer resulted in "a loss to Lehman exceeding $1.2 billion," according to the newly disclosed section of the report that James M. Peck, bankruptcy judge for the southern district of New York, ordered to be unsealed Wednesday.
Zap! You're not dead
Sep 6th 2007
From The Economist print edition
From The Economist print edition
Medicine: A new approach to proton-beam radiotherapy, which allows treatment to be precisely targeted, could make it more widely available
RADIOTHERAPY, the use of radiation zipping through the DNA of cancer cells to kill them or halt their reproduction, has always had the disadvantage of causing collateral damage to healthy tissue. But some forms of radiation are worse than others. One of the best is a beam of protons. Unlike X-rays, the standard radiotherapeutic tool, a proton beam can be tuned in a way that causes it to dump its destructive energy at a particular depth beneath the skin. This means it can destroy a tumour without damaging other tissue. Unfortunately, the machines needed to generate such beams weigh several hundred tonnes and cost $100m or more to build. So although proton therapy has been available since 1990, there are still only about 25 clinics around the world that offer it.
The dielectric-wall accelerator (DWA) that lies at the heart of Dr Mackie's machine was designed in the 1990s at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California as a portable X-ray source. At first, it was used to accelerate electrons rather than protons. Those electrons were smashed into a metal target to generate the high-energy X-rays that Livermore's physicists needed to peek inside ageing bombs and check that they were still in working order. But Dennis Matthews, one of Livermore's more medically minded programme directors, realised that by changing the polarity of the machine it could be used to accelerate positively charged protons, rather than negatively charged electrons. He then teamed up with the cancer centre at the University of California, Davis, to investigate the possibility of using a DWA for proton therapy.
The advantage of the DWA is its small size. Like all particle accelerators, it uses an electric field to speed up electrically charged particles. Most accelerators, however, speed up the particles over a long distance, using a moderate field. The DWA employs a succession of enormous fields over just a couple of metres.
That it is able to do so is the result of two technical advances. The first is an arrangement of insulating materials and conductors called a high-gradient insulator. Every insulator has a threshold beyond which the electrons are ripped off its component atoms and it becomes a conductor. Livermore's high-gradient insulator, though, damps down the early stages of this ripping process and creates a threshold so high that it can support the electric fields the DWA requires.
The second advance is a way of switching thousands of volts on and off in a few billionths of a second, a previously impossible feat. This requires a trick opposite to the first one—suddenly making an insulator into a conductor. The insulator in question is silicon carbide. When hit with laser light of the correct frequency, it becomes conductive.
The DWA, then, is a tube with an inner wall made of the high-gradient insulator and a series of silicon carbide switches along its length. As the switches are hit by a carefully timed sequence of laser pulses, a powerful electric field is created. Viewed from inside the tube, this field looks like an accelerating electrical pulse, and it is this pulse that picks up and carries the electrons—or, if the polarity is reversed, the protons.
Once Davis's scientists had pronounced the general idea sound, they and Dr Matthews looked around for a commercial collaborator. They lit on a firm called TomoTherapy, which is where Dr Mackie came in—for, besides working at Wisconsin, he is also TomoTherapy's co-founder. At the moment the firm sells machines that tune traditional, X-ray-based radiotherapy to make it more effective. The idea is to adapt the techniques the firm has developed for controlling X-rays to control protons. It will take a while to determine whether this will work. But if it does, radiation therapy for cancer could become a lot less traumatic and a lot more effective.
verb [T] -pp- INFORMAL
to destroy or kill something or someone, especially intentionally:
They've got the kind of weapons that can zap the enemy from thousands of miles away.
FIGURATIVE We're really going to zap the competition with this new product!
tr.v., -sealed, -seal·ing, -seals.
To break or remove the seal of; open.
- [形]((形式))1 （…の）側面にある, 横にある；（…と）並び合った((to ...))；平行した.2 《植物》並生する, 並立する；《解剖学》副行の.3 追加の, 補足の；（…に）付随する...
- collateral damage
collateralPronunciation: /kəˈlat(ə)r(ə)l/Translate collateral | into Italian
Origin:late Middle English (as an adjective): from medieval Latin collateralis, from col- 'together with' + lateralis (from latus, later- 'side'). sense 1 of the noun (originally US) is from the phrase collateral security, denoting something pledged in addition to the main obligation of a contract
[形]((形式))1 （…の）側面にある, 横にある；（…と）並び合った((to ...))；平行した.2 《植物》並生する, 並立する；《解剖学》副行の.3 追加の, 補足の；（…に）付随する((with ...))；（…に対し）副次の, 第二次的な, 間接の((to ...))
- 発音記号[kəlǽtərəl | kɔ-]
a collateral question
副担保4 証券類を担保とした, 見返りの
a collateral family
分家.━━[名]2 傍系の縁者, 傍系親族.3 付随事項, 付随［付帯］事情.col・lat・er・al・ly[副]