2017年5月24日 星期三

zap, unseal, Grounds for Suit, collateral, collateral damage, proton-beam radiotherapy




Hong Kong saw its debt rating cut by Moody’s Investors Service hours after China’s downgrade, highlighting potential risks from a tightening economic…
BLOOMBERG.COM


“Then we need narrow-spectrum antibiotics designed to knock out the pathogenic bacteria without disrupting the health-promoting ones,” Dr. Blaser added. “This will make it possible to treat serious infections with less collateral effect.”

Threat of U.S. Default Generates Fear Around Globe



Five years after a financial crisis in the United States helped spread a deep global recession, much of the world again fears collateral damage.


McCain: Palin Was "Better Candidate" Than Romney

McCain: Palin Was "Better Candidate" Than Romney


The 2008 GOP nominee pushes back against Dems' tax-return talking point—but not without some collateral damage.



Lehman Examiner Sees Possible Grounds for Suit
In a portion of the Lehman examiner's report unsealed Wednesday, Anton Valukas, appointed to investigate the circumstances surrounding Lehman Brother's collapse and liquidation, says that the failed investment bank may have cause to sue Goldman Sachs and Barclays for what might be a "fraudulent transaction."

The transaction transferred $2 billion in assets away from C.M.E. Group, which operates the Chicago and New York mercantile exchanges. The assets were collateral and clearing deposits held by C.M.E. and linked to Lehman's futures and options contracts -- proprietary trades that Goldman, Barclays, and another firm, DRW Trading, would take on along with the collateral transfer in question.

The transfer resulted in "a loss to Lehman exceeding $1.2 billion," according to the newly disclosed section of the report that James M. Peck, bankruptcy judge for the southern district of New York, ordered to be unsealed Wednesday.

Zap! You're not dead

Sep 6th 2007
From The Economist print edition

Medicine: A new approach to proton-beam radiotherapy, which allows treatment to be precisely targeted, could make it more widely available


RADIOTHERAPY, the use of radiation zipping through the DNA of cancer cells to kill them or halt their reproduction, has always had the disadvantage of causing collateral damage to healthy tissue. But some forms of radiation are worse than others. One of the best is a beam of protons. Unlike X-rays, the standard radiotherapeutic tool, a proton beam can be tuned in a way that causes it to dump its destructive energy at a particular depth beneath the skin. This means it can destroy a tumour without damaging other tissue. Unfortunately, the machines needed to generate such beams weigh several hundred tonnes and cost $100m or more to build. So although proton therapy has been available since 1990, there are still only about 25 clinics around the world that offer it.
An announcement at a meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, held in Minneapolis in July, could change this, however. Thomas Mackie of the University of Wisconsin has a new approach that he hopes will bring the cost of a proton-therapy machine down to $20m and the space required to a smallish room.
The dielectric-wall accelerator (DWA) that lies at the heart of Dr Mackie's machine was designed in the 1990s at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California as a portable X-ray source. At first, it was used to accelerate electrons rather than protons. Those electrons were smashed into a metal target to generate the high-energy X-rays that Livermore's physicists needed to peek inside ageing bombs and check that they were still in working order. But Dennis Matthews, one of Livermore's more medically minded programme directors, realised that by changing the polarity of the machine it could be used to accelerate positively charged protons, rather than negatively charged electrons. He then teamed up with the cancer centre at the University of California, Davis, to investigate the possibility of using a DWA for proton therapy.
The advantage of the DWA is its small size. Like all particle accelerators, it uses an electric field to speed up electrically charged particles. Most accelerators, however, speed up the particles over a long distance, using a moderate field. The DWA employs a succession of enormous fields over just a couple of metres.
That it is able to do so is the result of two technical advances. The first is an arrangement of insulating materials and conductors called a high-gradient insulator. Every insulator has a threshold beyond which the electrons are ripped off its component atoms and it becomes a conductor. Livermore's high-gradient insulator, though, damps down the early stages of this ripping process and creates a threshold so high that it can support the electric fields the DWA requires.
The second advance is a way of switching thousands of volts on and off in a few billionths of a second, a previously impossible feat. This requires a trick opposite to the first one—suddenly making an insulator into a conductor. The insulator in question is silicon carbide. When hit with laser light of the correct frequency, it becomes conductive.
The DWA, then, is a tube with an inner wall made of the high-gradient insulator and a series of silicon carbide switches along its length. As the switches are hit by a carefully timed sequence of laser pulses, a powerful electric field is created. Viewed from inside the tube, this field looks like an accelerating electrical pulse, and it is this pulse that picks up and carries the electrons—or, if the polarity is reversed, the protons.
Once Davis's scientists had pronounced the general idea sound, they and Dr Matthews looked around for a commercial collaborator. They lit on a firm called TomoTherapy, which is where Dr Mackie came in—for, besides working at Wisconsin, he is also TomoTherapy's co-founder. At the moment the firm sells machines that tune traditional, X-ray-based radiotherapy to make it more effective. The idea is to adapt the techniques the firm has developed for controlling X-rays to control protons. It will take a while to determine whether this will work. But if it does, radiation therapy for cancer could become a lot less traumatic and a lot more effective.


zap (DESTROY)
verb [T] -pp- INFORMAL
to destroy or kill something or someone, especially intentionally:
They've got the kind of weapons that can zap the enemy from thousands of miles away.
FIGURATIVE We're really going to zap the competition with this new product!




unseal
tr.v., -sealed, -seal·ing, -seals.
To break or remove the seal of; open.


collateral
[形]((形式))1 (…の)側面にある, 横にある;(…と)並び合った((to ...));平行した.2 《植物》並生する, 並立する;《解剖学》副行の.3 追加の, 補足の;(…に)付随する...
collateral damage
(戦闘での)民間人殺傷.
collateralize
[動](他)…を担保で保証する.

collateral

Pronunciation: /kəˈlat(ə)r(ə)l/
Translate collateral | into Italian


noun

  • 1 [mass noun] something pledged as security for repayment of a loan, to be forfeited in the event of a default: she put her house up as collateral for the bank loan
  • 2a person having the same ancestor as another but through a different line.

adjective

  • additional but subordinate; secondary:the collateral meanings of a word
  • euphemistic denoting inadvertent casualties and destruction in civilian areas in the course of military ope rations:munitions must be able to destroy the target without causing collateral damage collateral casualties
  • descended from the same stock but by a different line:a collateral descendant of Robert Burns
  • 3situated side by side; parallel:collateral veins



Derivatives





collaterality


Pronunciation: /-ˈralɪti/
noun




collaterally

adverb

Origin:

late Middle English (as an adjective): from medieval Latin collateralis, from col- 'together with' + lateralis (from latus, later- 'side'). sense 1 of the noun (originally US) is from the phrase collateral security, denoting something pledged in addition to the main obligation of a contract

collateral[col・lat・er・al]
 

  • レベル:社会人必須
  • 発音記号[kəlǽtərəl | kɔ-]
[形]((形式))
1 (…の)側面にある, 横にある;(…と)並び合った((to ...));平行した.
2 《植物》並生する, 並立する;《解剖学》副行の.
3 追加の, 補足の;(…に)付随する((with ...));(…に対し)副次の, 第二次的な, 間接の((to ...))
a collateral question
付随質問
collateral evidence
裏づけ証拠
collateral loans
担保付きの貸出
collateral security
副担保
collateral to one's primary goal
主目的にとって副次的な.
4 証券類を担保とした, 見返りの
collateral goods
見返り物資.
5 傍系の;傍系親族の
a collateral family
分家.
━━[名]
1 担保;見返り品
put ... up as collateral
(…を)担保とする.
2 傍系の縁者, 傍系親族.
3 付随事項, 付随[付帯]事情.
col・lat・er・al・ly
[副]

沒有留言: