2015年7月20日 星期一

contention, idealist, contend with sth, cynic, contender, freeloader, characterize


How Adobe's Flash video software became a contender for the technology dead pool.

Adobe’s Flash video software, criticized for years as a security risk and a drag on online progress, last week stepped yet closer to the grave due to a flaw that hackers were reportedly exploiting. Some in the tech industry say...
WSJ.COM|作者:ROBERT MCMILLAN





Obama Contends With Arc of Instability Unseen Since '70s1




Whether John Maynard Keynes's ideas were ever as simple or consistent as some modern-day Keynesian economists suggest is a matter of great contention. The Economist noted as long ago as the 1960s that the ideas of Keynes the man were diverging from contemporary Keynesian economics http://econ.st/1iS2V7p
 我也調侃過王爾德的。在我中譯本的《不可兒戲》後記中,我曾摹擬他的口吻對譯者的我說:So you have presented me in a new version of Sinicism? It never occurred to me I could be made so Sinical. 王爾德好用雙關語,我也用以還治其人。Sinicism意為「中國風味」但與cynicism(憤世嫉俗)完全同音。料這位唯美才子也未必能針鋒相對回我 嘴吧?

Cynicism We Can Believe In By SIMON CRITCHLEY
The ancient philosopher Diogenes the Cynic’s definition of cynicism as a moral protest against excess and thoughtless self-indulgence in the conduct of life has modern implications.

Indeed, for all the attention to the Olympics, 2008 also marks the 30th anniversary of China’s initial embrace of the market reforms that have powered the country’s rapid economic rise. As the population becomes more urban and wealthy, the leadership will probably have to contend with rising expectations and demands for better services. Liberals in China have hoped this anniversary would inspire new reforms, especially to a political system still marred by corruption and a lack of transparency.




Although some criticized parts of his later work as too contentious, Mr. Carlin defended the material, insisting that his comedy had always been driven by an intolerance for the shortcomings of humanity and society. “Scratch any cynic,” he said, “and you’ll find a disappointed idealist.”



G.O.P. Weighs Limiting Clout of Right Wing

By JEREMY W. PETERS and JONATHAN MARTIN

Leaders of the Republican establishment are pushing their party to rethink how it chooses nominees and advocating changes they say would result in less extreme contenders.

Gingrich to OWS: Take a Bath, Get a Job

GOP contender characterizes the protesters as ignorant freeloaders.


Oracle Says H-P and Intel Secretly Propped Up Dead Chip
Oracle added what it characterized as a damning new allegation against Hewlett-Packard in a vitriolic legal battle. But the bigger issue may be just how long this fight will go on.



contend

Pronunciation: /kənˈtɛnd/
Translate contend | into French | into German | into Italian | into Spanish

verb

  •  1 [no object] (contend with/against) struggle to surmount (a difficulty):she had to contend with his uncertain temper
  •  (contend for) compete with others in a struggle to achieve (something):factions within the government were contending for the succession to the presidency
  •  2 [with clause] assert something as a position in an argument:he contends that the judge was wrong


Derivatives




contender

noun

Origin:

late Middle English (in the sense 'compete for (something)'): from Old French contendre or Latin contendere, from con- 'with' + tendere 'stretch, strive'


freeloader
noun
    One who depends on another for support without reciprocating: bloodsuckerhanger-onleechparasitespongeSeedependence/independence.


contend with sth phrasal verb
to have to deal with a difficult or unpleasant situation:
At the age of nine, he had the death of both parents to contend with.
We don't need a computer failure to contend with as well as all our other problems.



contention
(DISAGREEMENT)
noun [U]
the disagreement that results from opposing arguments:
There's a lot of contention about that issue - for every person firmly in favour, there's someone fiercely against it.
The matter has been settled - it's no longer in contention.But sure there is need of other remedies than dreaming, a weak contention of art against nature.

See also contention at contend (COMPETE).
━━ n. 競争; 論争; 論(争)点, 主張;

【コンピュータ】(通信の)競合, コンテンション.

A condition arising when two or more data stations attempt to transmit at the same time over a shared channel, or when two data stations attempt to transmit at the same time in either-way communication
con・ten・tious ━━ a. 議論好きな; 物議をかもす; 【法】係争の.



contentious
adjective
causing or likely to cause disagreement:
a contentious decision/policy/issue/subject
She has some rather contentious views on education.contention (OPINION) Show phonetics
noun [C] SLIGHTLY FORMAL
an opinion expressed in an argument:
[+ that] It is her contention that exercise is more important than diet if you want to lose weight.
See also contention at contend (COMPETE).

Contention

Noun

1. A point asserted as part of an argument.
2. A dispute where there is strong disagreement; "they were involved in a violent argument".
3. The act of competing as for profit or a prize: "the teams were in fierce contention for first place".
Source: WordNet 1.7.1 Copyright © 2001 by Princeton University. All rights reserved.
cynic

n.

  1. A person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness.
  2. A person whose outlook is scornfully and often habitually negative.
  3. Cynic A member of a sect of ancient Greek philosophers who believed virtue to be the only good and self-control to be the only means of achieving virtue.
adj.
  1. Cynical.
  2. Cynic Of or relating to the Cynics or their beliefs.
[Latin cynicus, Cynic philosopher, from Greek kunikos, from kuōn, kun-, dog.]
WORD HISTORY A cynic may be pardoned for thinking that this is a dog's life. The Greek word kunikos, from which cynic comes, was originally an adjective meaning “doglike,” from kuōn, “dog.” The word was probably applied to the Cynic philosophers because of the nickname kuōn given to Diogenes of Sinope, the prototypical Cynic. He is reported to have been seen barking in public, urinating on the leg of a table, and masturbating on the street. The first use of the word recorded in English, in a work published from 1547 to 1564, is in the plural for members of this philosophical sect. In 1596 we find the first instance of cynic meaning “faultfinder,” a sense that was to develop into our modern sense. The meaning “faultfinder” came naturally from the behavior of countless Cynics who in their pursuit of virtue pointed out the flaws in others. Such faultfinding could lead quite naturally to the belief associated with cynics of today that selfishness determines human behavior.

ideal (PRINCIPLE)
noun [C]
a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard:
democratic ideals
We are committed to the ideal of equality.
They share the same high ideals.

idealism
noun [U]
1 the belief that your ideals can be achieved, often when this does not seem likely to others:
She never lost her youthful idealism and campaigned for just causes all her life.
Compare realism at real (NOT IMAGINARY).

2 SPECIALIZED the belief in philosophy that objects in the world are ideas which only exist in the mind of God or people who see them

idealist 
noun [C]
someone who believes that ideals can be achieved, often when this does not seem likely to others

idealistic adjective
When I was young and idealistic I believed it was possible to change the world.



i・de・al

()

-->
━━ a. 理想的な, 完全な ((for)); 想像(上)の, 観念的な, 架空の; 【哲】イデアの.
━━ n. 理想(の人・物), 典型.
ideal crystal 【結晶】理想的完全結晶.
ideal gas 【物・化】理想[完全]気体.
i・de・al・ism ━━ n. 理想主義; 【哲】観念論; 【芸術】観念主義.
i・de・al・ist ━━ n., a. 理想主義者; 空想家; 【哲】観念論者; =idealistic.
i・de・al・is・tic
 ━━ a. 理想主義の; 夢想家の, 非現実的な; 観念論の.
i・de・al・is・ti・cal・ly ad.
i・de・al・i・za・tion ━━ n.
i・de・al・ize ━━ v. 理想化する; 理想を描く.
i・de・al・ly ━━ ad.
ideal solution 【化】理想溶液.
Ideal Toy アイデアル・トーイ ((米国の玩具メーカー)).




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